The Indian Ocean is the third-largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering 70,560,000 km 2 (27,240,000 sq mi) or 19.8% of the water on Earth 's surface. It is bounded by Asia to the north, Africa to the west and Australia to the east. To the south it is bounded by the Southern Ocean or Antarctica, depending on the definition in use.
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The Indian Oceanis the oceansurrounded by Asiato the north, Australiaand the Pacific Oceanto the east, the Southern Oceanto the south, and Africaand the Atlantic Oceanto the west. It is named for the river Indusand Ancient Indiaon its north shore. The Bay of Bengal, the Arabian Sea, the Persian Gulfand the Red Seaare all parts of this ocean.
Prior to World War II, the Indian Ocean was an important maritime trade route between European nations and their colonial territories in East Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, British India, Indochina, the East Indies (Indonesia), and Australia for a long time.
In 2000 the IHO redefined the Indian Ocean, moving its southern limit to 60°S, with the waters south of that line identified as the Southern Ocean. This new definition has not yet been ratified (a reservation has been lodged by Australia  ) though it is in use by the IHO and others.
The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake was unusually large in geographical and geological extent. An estimated 1,600 km (1,000 mi) of fault surface slipped (or ruptured) about 15 m (50 ft) along the subduction zone where the Indian Plate slides (or subducts) under the overriding Burma Plate.
The British Indian Ocean Territory is a British overseas territory of the United Kingdom situated in the Indian Ocean halfway between Tanzania and Indonesia. The territory comprises the seven atolls of the Chagos Archipelago with over 1,000 individual islands – many very small – amounting to a total land area of 60 square kilometres. The largest and most southerly island is Diego Garcia, 27 km2, the site of a joint military facility of the United Kingdom and the United States. The only...
Maldivian mariners knew the Chagos Islands well. In Maldivian lore, they are known as Fōlhavahi or Hollhavai. According to Southern Maldivian oral tradition, traders and fishermen were occasionally lost at sea and got stranded on one of the islands of the Chagos. Eventually they were rescued and brought back home. However, these islands were judged to be too far away from the seat of the Maldivian crown to be settled permanently by them. Thus, for many centuries the Chagos were ignored by their
As a territory of the United Kingdom, the head of state is Queen Elizabeth II. There is no Governor appointed to represent the Queen in the territory, as there are no permanent inhabitants. The territory is one of eight dependencies in the Indian Ocean alongside the Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Christmas Island, the Cocos Islands, and Heard Island and McDonald Islands, all Australian possessions; the French Southern and Antarctic Lands, with the French Scattered Islands in the Indian Ocean and i
The territory is an archipelago of 55 islands, the largest being Diego Garcia, the only inhabited island which accounts for almost half of the territory's total land area. The terrain is flat and low, with most areas not exceeding two metres above sea level. The climate is tropical marine; hot, humid, and moderated by trade winds. In 2010, 545,000 square kilometres of ocean around the islands was declared a marine reserve. The British Indian Ocean Territory Order 2004 defines the territory as co
The British Indian Ocean Territory Order 2004 states that "no person has the right of abode" in the territory as it "was constituted and is set aside to be available for the defence purposes of the Government of the United Kingdom and the Government of the United States of America" and accordingly "no person is entitled to enter or be present in the Territory except as authorised" by its laws. As there is no permanent population, or census, information on the demographics of the territory is lim
All economic activity is concentrated on Diego Garcia, where joint UK/US defence facilities are located. Construction projects and the operation of various services needed to support the military installations are carried out by military and contract employees from Britain, Mauritius, the Philippines, and the USA. There are no industrial or agricultural activities on the islands. Until the creation of the marine sanctuary, the licensing of commercial fishing provided an annual income of about $1
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The Indian Ocean Rim Association, formerly known as the Indian Ocean Rim Initiative and the Indian Ocean Rim Association for Regional Cooperation, is an international organisation consisting of 23 states bordering the Indian Ocean. The IORA is a regional forum, tripartite in nature, bringing together representatives of Government, Business and Academia, for promoting co-operation and closer interaction among them. It is based on the principles of Open Regionalism for strengthening Economic Coope
The organisation was first established as Indian Ocean Rim Initiative in Mauritius on March 1995 and formally launched on 6–7 March 1997 by the conclusion of a multilateral treaty known as the Charter of the Indian Ocean Rim Association for Regional Co-operation. The idea is said to have taken root during a visit of former South African Foreign Minister, Pik Botha, to India in November 1993. It was cemented during the subsequent presidential visit of Nelson Mandela to India in January ...
Beginning with India's acting as IORA Chair from 2011 to 2013, IORA has divided its maritime cooperation strategy into six priority areas and two focus areas in an attempt to strengthen the organization's institutions and capacities.
The initial membership of IORA, then the Indian Ocean Rim Initiative, included only seven countries, the "Magnificent 7," hosted by Mauritius. Though membership grew to 14 states in March 1997, when the first ministerial meeting was convened and the Charter of the Indian Ocean Ri
A "Focus Area" of IORA, the Blue Economy gained the attention of all IORA member states at the 14th IORA Ministerial Meeting in 2014 due to its potential for promoting employment, food security, and poverty alleviation, while promoting business models and the economies of member
Though broad in membership and advancing in organizational integrity, IORA faces several obstacles that prevent it from growing into a highly successful and influential regional organization; these issues range from structural deficiencies to geopolitical conflicts existing outside IORA that permeate the organization and prevent cooperation.
The Association comprises 23 Member States and 9 Dialogue Partners, the Indian Ocean Tourism Organisation and the Indian Ocean Research Group have observer status.
The Indian Ocean raid, also known as Operation C or Battle of Ceylon in Japanese, was a naval sortie carried out by the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) from 31 March to 10 April 1942. Japanese aircraft carriers under Admiral Chūichi Nagumo struck Allied shipping and naval bases around Ceylon , but failed to locate and destroy the bulk of the ...