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  1. Indo-Aryan languages - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Northwestern_Indo-Aryan

    4 days ago · The Indo-Aryan or Indic languages form a major language family of South Asia. They constitute a branch of the Indo-Iranian languages, themselves a branch of the Indo-European language family. As of the early 21st century more than 800 million people speak Indo-Aryan languages, primarily in India, Bangladesh, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka.

  2. Indo-Aryan peoples - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Indo-Aryan_peoples

    May 02, 2021 · The Indo-Aryan migration theory, proposed among others by anthropologist David W. Anthony (in The Horse, The Wheel and Language) and by archaeologists Elena Efimovna Kuzmina and J. P. Mallory, shows that the introduction of the Indo-Aryan languages in the Indian subcontinent was the result of a migration of people whose culture originated in ...

  3. Hindi - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Hindi

    18 hours ago · Middle Indo-Aryan to Hindi. Like other Indo-Aryan languages, Hindi is a direct descendant of an early form of Vedic Sanskrit, through Sauraseni Prakrit and Śauraseni Apabhraṃśa (from Sanskrit apabhraṃśa "corrupt"), which emerged in the 7th century CE.

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    What language was developed by the Aryans?

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  5. Proto-Indo-Iranian language - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Proto-Indo-Iranian_language

    May 02, 2021 · Among the sound changes from Proto-Indo-Iranian to Indo-Aryan is the loss of the voiced sibilant *z; among those to Proto-Iranian is the de-aspiration of the PIE voiced aspirates. Proto-Indo-European and Indo-Iranian Phonological Correspondences [19]

  6. Indo-European languages - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Indo-Europeans

    May 02, 2021 · The Indo-European languages are a language family native to western and southern Eurasia. It comprises most of the languages of Europe together with those of the northern Indian subcontinent and the Iranian Plateau.

  7. India - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    simple.wikipedia.org › wiki › Republic_of_India

    6 days ago · There are two main language families in India, the Indo-Aryan and the Dravidian languages. About 69% of Indians speak an Indo-Arayan language, about 26% speak a Dravidian language. Other languages spoken in India come from the Austro-Asiatic group. Around 5% of the people speak a Tibeto-Burman language. Hindi is the official language in India ...

  8. List of languages - Simple English Wikipedia, the free ...

    simple.wikipedia.org › wiki › List_of_languages

    4 days ago · Yokutsan languages; Yonaguni language; Yorùbá language; Yucatec Maya language; Yucatec Maya Sign Language ; Yuchi language; Yugur (also known as Yughur, (Turkic) Sarïgh Uyghur, and (Turkic) Yellow Uyghur, Turkic) Yukaghir languages; Yupik language (Eskimo–Aleut) Yurats language; Yurok language

  9. Kashmiri language - Simple English Wikipedia, the free ...

    simple.wikipedia.org › wiki › Kashmiri_language

    May 02, 2021 · From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Kashmiri (کٲشُر Kashur) is a language from the Dardic subgroup of the Indo-Iranian languages. It is spoken primarily in the Kashmir Valley, in Indian-administered Kashmir.

  10. Indo-European languages - RationalWiki

    rationalwiki.org › wiki › Indo-European_languages
    • Their Startling Discovery
    • Subfamilies
    • Relationships Within The Indo-European Family
    • The Two Branches of The Aryan Myth
    • The Surviving Branch: Eco-Feminist Pseudohistory
    • Where Do They Come from?
    • How Deep Can We Dig Into The History of Language?
    • Proto-Indo-European Religion
    • Proto-Indo-European Names
    • See Also

    A variety of writers had observed that languages such as Russian appeared to be related to Greek and Latin; Mikhail Lomonosov noted the similarities between Russian, Greek, Latin, and the Baltic ("Courlandic" or "Kurlandic") languages in his 1755 Russian Grammar, inviting us to "(i)magine the depth of time when these languages separated! … Polish and Russian separated so long ago! Now think how long ago [this happened to] Kurlandic! Think when [this happened to] Latin, Greek, German, and Russian! Oh, great antiquity!" But it was Sir William Jones, a British judge stationed in India, who noticed the strong similarity between Sanskritand Classical Greek: It was, in fact, quite startling for white Britons to discover that brown "heathens" were speaking a language closely akin to Ancient Greek. British attitudes towards India and its culture during the colonial period tended towards two extremes. Indophilia was manifest in orientalist art, architecture, and painting; Goethe and Ralph Wa...

    Albanian - A language primarily spoken in Albania with significant minorities in other Southern European countries. It possesses some similarities to Greek and has many Turkish loanwords due to Alb...
    Anatolian - Now extinct, this was the language family of the Hittite people. Hittite is the oldest attested Indo-European language and lacks some grammatical features more common in its cousins.
    Armenian - An independent branch of the IE languages, which is spoken in Armenia in two primary dialects and has significant minorities in Lebanon, Russia, Georgia, Iran, and Turkey. It has been pr...
    Balto-Slavic - The surviving Baltic languages are now Latvian and Lithuanian, the latter of which is notable for its extreme conservatism. Slavic languages include Russian, Ukrainian, Czech, Serbo-...

    It is an interesting fact that the Germanic languages on one hand and the Balto-Slavic languages on the other, are believed to be more closely related to one another than either group is to anything else. The reasons for this are of course technical details in the inflection of those language groups, but the Austrian Corporal with the mustache seems to have been unaware of this, and yet he mentioned languages as parts of "race". That notion — of associating language with the nebulous concept of race — is of course pure drivel, but still, somebody should have pointed this out to him. By the way, this relatedness should put the final nail in the obsolete centum-satem division. Germanic languages are centum, Balto-Slavic languages are satem. The centum-satem division is named for the Latin word for 100 (centum) and the same word in the Avestan language which for a long time was believed to mirror an ancient division or at the least dialect continuum in the early history of Indo-Europea...

    The Indo-European languages are one of history's success stories. As such, their origin and the reasons for their spread have given rise to speculation of varying quality. Notoriously, this included the ideology of Nazi Germany, whose monstrous genocide tainted the name of Aryan which may have been one of the names the speakers of the ancient language knew themselves by. An idea arose — a fairly plausible one, actually — that since their languages spread so far, the speakers of this language must have been mighty conquerors; the territorial spread of the languages is a relic of their prehistoric empire. The myth of the Aryan conqueror, the master race, has sprouted two branches, one of which is mostly dead: that one's Nazism. It has 19th century roots; initial discoveries about Indo-European languages were made in a context of nationalistic Romanticism, where literary figures like J. G. Herder developed loopy theories about how languages somehow embody the souls of people. Ironicall...

    Early accounts of the Aryans make the frequently seen but unreliable assumption that language is co-extensive with race. Myths of Aryan conquerors are founded on a belief that it was some kind of superiority that enabled Indo-European speakers to replace previous cultures, rather than attracting them by the merits of their culture. This superiority might be innate and racial, or it may depend on their superior military technology such as chariots and cavalry units. Was it some prowess or warlike virtue of the Aryans — apparently what the Indo-Europeans called themselves, attested in that form in India, in the Greek superlative aristoi (ἄριστοι), the best people, (i.e. aristocrats); also in the names of the countries Iran, and maybe, Ireland (Éire)[note 4] that spread their language across five continents? It's suggested that they were the first to master horseback riding, wagons, and chariots as military technologies. They spread their language everywhere by prowess and technology....

    If you admire these guys, you might want to claim your own country as their homeland. There are a variety of nationalistic claims; Nazi Germany notoriously claimed to be the Aryan homeland; and strains of Hindu nationalism also assert that the Sanskritlanguage is indigenous to India. The overwhelming current scholarly consensus places the Indo-European homeland in the area of the Black Sea; a minority say Anatolia, many say that the steppes of Eastern Europe are the Indo-European homeland. A 2015 survey, combining genetic and linguistic data, concluded that the steppe hypothesis was the most likely, and that Indo-European dialects were spoken by the Yamnaya and Corded Ware culture. More recent genetic and archaeological studies have linked by the Corded Ware culture and the Afanasievo cultureof Siberia to a Yamna origin. Of course the biggest problem with all localization attempts is that ceramic shards speak no language and material culture and language don't have to correlate (bot...

    Another vein of rich speculation seeks to relate Indo-European to other reconstructed protolanguages. Historical linguistics is founded on a principle called the comparative method. A relationship between two languages cannot be established only by discovering words that seem to resemble each other; they must be shown to derive from a common ancestor. There must be a consistent set of sound changes from a (partially) reconstructable protolanguage. Historical linguistics does not simply seek to demonstrate the possibility that two languages might be related; it means to show specifically how, and arrange languages cladistically on a family tree. The possibility of a relationship between the several languages of the Indo-European family was noticed early on by comparing word lists; but given the possibility of borrowing, onomatopoeia, and chance resemblances, comparing lists of words is an insufficiently rigorous method of determining language classifications. The comparative method a...

    Researchers can apply the comparative method to religious vocabulary in an attempt to piece together commonalities of religion across the different groups who have spoken Indo-European languages. This may possibly give an insight into any putative common ancestor(s) of the major European religious traditions: Roman, Germanic (including Norse), Greek, Sanskrit (Hindu) and (more speculatively) Slavic. A word for "god" occurs in many languages: deva (Sanskrit), deus (Latin), duw (Welsh). Émile Benveniste claimed there are no PIE words for "religion", "cult", "priest",[note 6] or anything similar, though there are common roots with the meaning "holy/sacred" and "pray". This seem to indicate a religion of some sort but that PIE culture was not so developed that people occupied specialized religious offices full-time. Specific gods, goddesses, and religious themes include (asterisks denote reconstructions): 1. A common chief god, in PIE *Dyēus Ph2tēr, giving Latin Jupiter, Greek Zeus, San...

    The use of two-word compound words for personal names, typically but not always ascribing some noble or heroic feat to their bearer, is so common in Indo-European languages that it seems certainly inherited. These names are often of the class of compound words that in Sanskrit are called bahuvrihicompounds. They are found in the Celtic region (Dumnorix: "king of the world"), in Indo-Aryan (Aśvaghosa: "tamer of horses"); in Iranian (Viŝtaspa: "possessing horses untied (for racing)"); in Greek (Socrates: "good ruler"); in Slavic (Vladimir: "ruler of the world"); in Germanic (Godgifu: "gift of God"), and in Anatolian (Piyama-Radu: "gift of the devotee?"). Patronymics identifying people as sons or daughters of a distinguished ancestor are also common in Indo-European cultures: Germanic Gustafsson, (son of Gustaf); Celtic Ui Neill (O'Neill, of the clan of Niall) and Mac Domhnaill (MacDonald, son of Donald), Italic Rodriguez (son of Rodrigo) and Slavic Ivanovič, Ivanovna(son, daughter of...

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