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  1. Languages of Europe - Wikipedia › wiki › Languages_of_Europe

    11 hours ago · Most languages of Europe belong to the Indo-European language family.Out of a total European population of 744 million as of 2018, some 94% are native speakers of an Indo-European language; within Indo-European, the three largest phyla are Romance, Germanic, and Slavic with more than 200 million speakers each, between them accounting for close to 90% of Europeans.

  2. Romani language - Wikipedia › wiki › Romani_language

    11 hours ago · However, it was the philologist Ralph Turner's 1927 article “The Position of Romani in Indo-Aryan” that served as the basis for the integrating of Romani into the history of Indian languages. Romani is an Indo-Aryan language that is part of the Balkan sprachbund. It is the only New Indo-Aryan spoken exclusively outside the Indian subcontinent.

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  4. Bengalis - Wikipedia › wiki › Bengalis

    1 day ago · The Indo-Aryan Bengalis are ethnically differentiated from the non-Indo-Aryan tribes inhabiting Bengal. Their ethnonym, Bangali, along with the native name of the language and region Bangla, are both derived from Bangālah, the Persian word for the region.

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  5. Jharkhand - Wikipedia › wiki › Jharkhand

    11 hours ago · Jharkhand (/ ˈ dʒ ɑːr k ə n d /; Hindi: [d͡ʒʱɑːɾkʰəɳɖ]; meaning 'The Land of Forests') is a state in eastern India. The state shares its border with the states of Bihar to the north, Uttar Pradesh to the northwest, Chhattisgarh to the west, Odisha to the south and West Bengal to the east.

    • 15 November 2000
    • India
  6. Himachal Pradesh - Wikipedia › wiki › Himachal_Pradesh

    1 day ago · Himachal Pradesh was one of the few states that had remained largely untouched by external customs, largely due to its difficult terrain. With remarkable economic and social advancements, the state has changed rapidly. Himachal Pradesh is a multireligious, multicultural as well as a multilingual state like other Indian states.

  7. Hindus - Wikipedia › wiki › Hindus

    1 day ago · Hindus (Hindustani: (); / ˈ h ɪ n d uː z, h ɪ n d ʊ z /) are persons who regard themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism. Historically, the term has also been used as a geographical, cultural, and later religious identifier for people living in the Indian subcontinent.

  8. Bengali Muslims - Wikipedia › wiki › Bengali_Muslims
    • Identity
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    • Science and Technology
    • Demographics
    • Culture
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    A Bengali is a person of ethnic and linguistic heritage from the Bengal region in South Asia speaking the Indo-Aryan Bengali language. Islam arrived in the first millennium and influenced the native Bengali culture. The influx of Persian, Turkic, Arab and Mughal settlers contributed further diversity to the cultural development of the region. However, historians including Richard Maxwell Eaton, Ahmed Sharif, Muhammad Mohar Ali and Jadunath Sarkar are in agreement that the bulk of Muslims are descended from Hindus who were converted to Islam by missionaries.Today, most Bengali Muslims live in the modern state of Bangladesh, the world's fourth largest Muslim-majority country, along with the Indian states of West Bengal and Assam. The dominant majority of Bengali Muslims are Sunnis who follow the Hanafi school of jurisprudence. There are also minorities of Shias and Ahmadiyas, as well as people who identify as non-denominational(or "just a Muslim").

    Pre-Islamic history

    Rice-cultivating communities existed in Bengal since the second millennium BCE. The region was home to a large agriculturalist population influenced by Indian religions. Buddhism influenced the region in the first millennium. The Bengali language developed from Apabhramsa and Magadhi Prakrit between the 7th and 10th centuries. It once formed a single Indo-Aryan branch with Assamese and Oriya, before the languages became distinct.

    Early explorers

    Spread of Islam in the Indian subcontinent is a contested issue. Historical evidences suggest the early Muslim traders and merchants visited Bengal while traversing the Silk Road in the first millennium. One of the earliest mosques in South Asia is under excavation in northern Bangladesh, indicating the presence of Muslims in the area around the lifetime of the Prophet Muhammad. Starting in the 9th century, Muslim merchants increased trade with Bengali seaports.Coins of the Abbasid Caliphate...

    Early Islamic kingdoms

    The Muslim conquest of the Indian subcontinent took place between the 12th and 16th centuries. Bengal became a province of the Delhi Sultanate in 1204. In the 14th century the Sultanate of Bengal became independent and emerged as a regional power. It adopted Bengali as one of its official languages, alongside Persian, the diplomatic language of the Islamic world, and Arabic, the liturgical language of the religion. The Sultanate also ruled parts of Arakan and Assam. The Sur Empirebriefly over...

    The Bengali numerals are derived from ancient Indian mathematics, which also influenced the development of Arabic numeralsand science in the medieval Islamic world. Historical Islamic kingdoms that existed in Bengal employed several clever technologies in numerous areas such as architecture, agriculture, civil engineering, water management, etc. The creation of canals and reservoirs was a common practice for the sultanate. New methods of irrigation were pioneered by the Sufis. Bengali mosque architecture featured terracotta, stone, wood and bamboo, with curved roofs, corner towers and multiple domes. During the Bengal Sultanate, a distinct regional style flourished which featured no minarets, but had richly designed mihrabs and minbarsas niches. Islamic Bengal had a long history of textile weaving, including export of muslin during the 17th and 18th centuries. Today, the weaving of Jamdani is classified by UNESCO as an intangible cultural heritage. Modern science was begun in Bengal...

    Bengali Muslims constitute the world's second-largest Muslim ethnicity (after the Arab world) and the largest Muslim community in South Asia. An estimated 146million Bengali Muslims live in Bangladesh, where Islam is the state religion and commands the demographic majority. The Indian state of West Bengal is home to an estimated 30.26million Bengali Muslims as per 2021 estimation. Two districts in West Bengal – Murshidabad and Maldah have a Muslim majority and North Dinajpur has a plurality. The Indian state of Assam has over 10million Bengali Muslims out of 14 million Muslim population in Assam. Nine out of thirty-seven districts in Assam have a Muslim majority. The Rohingya community in western Myanmarhave significant Bengali Muslim heritage. A large Bengali Muslim diaspora is found in the Arab states of the Persian Gulf, which are home to several million expatriate workers from South Asia. A more well-established diaspora also resides in the United States, Canada, the United King...


    Surnames in Bengali Muslim society reflect the region's cosmopolitan history. They are mainly of Arabic and Persianorigin, with a minority of Bengali surnames.


    An indigenous style of Islamic architecture flourished in Bengal during the medieval Sultanate period. Terracotta and stonemosques with multiple domes proliferated in the region. Bengali Muslim architecture emerged as a synthesis of Bengali, Persian, Byzantine, and Mughal elements. The Indo-Saracenic style influenced Islamic architecture in South Asia during the British Raj. A notable example of this period is Curzon Hall. Modern and contemporary Islamic architecture evolved in the region sin...


    Sufi spiritual traditions are central to the Bengali Muslim way of life. The most common Sufi ritual is the Dhikr, the practice of repeating the names of God after prayers. Sufi teachings regard the Prophet Muhammad as the primary perfect man who exemplifies the morality of God. Sufism is regarded as the individual internalisation and intensification of the Islamic faith and practice. The Sufis played a vital role in developing Bengali Muslim society during the medieval period. Historic Sufi...

    There is no single governing body for the Bengali Muslim community, nor a single authority with responsibility for religious doctrine. However, the semi-autonomous Islamic Foundation, a government institution, plays an important role in Islamic affairs in Bangladesh, including setting festival dates and matters related to zakat. The general Bengali Muslim clergy remains deeply orthodox and conservative. Members of the clergy include Mawlānās, Imams, Ulamas, and Muftis. The clergy of the Bengali Muslim Shiaminority have been based in the old quarter of Dhaka since the 18th century.

    Muhammad Yunus is the first Bengali Muslim Nobel laureate who was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for founding the Grameen Bank and pioneering the concepts of microcredit and microfinance. Begum Rokeya was one of the world's first Muslim feminists. Kazi Nazrul Islam was renowned as the Rebel Poet of British India and the National Poet of Bangladesh. Sheikh Mujibur Rahman was the first President of Bangladesh. Iskander Mirza was the first president of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. Khwaja Salimullah was one of the founders of the All-India Muslim League. Rushanara Ali was the amongst the first Muslim MPs in the House of Commons of the United Kingdom. Fazlur Rahman Khan was a prominent American Bengali Muslim engineer who brought in spectacular changes in design of modern skyscraper construction. Jawed Karim is one of the co-founders of YouTube. Sal Khan is a co-founder of Khan Academy. Humayun Rashid Choudhury served as President of the United Nations General Assembly. M. A. G. Osma...

    Other Bengali religious groups 1. Bengali Hindus 2. Bengali Buddhists 3. Bengali Christians Other Muslim ethnic groups 1. Arab Muslims 2. Punjabi Muslims 3. Malaysian Malays Outlines 1. Outline of Bangladesh 2. Outline of Islam

    Ahmed, Rafiuddin (1996). The Bengal Muslims, 1871–1906: a quest for identity. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-563919-3.
    Ahmed, Rafiuddin (2001). Understanding the Bengal Muslims: interpretative essays. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-565520-9.
    Bald, Vivek (2013). Bengali Harlem and the Lost Histories of South Asian America. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-07040-0.
    Chakraborty, Ashoke Kumar (2002). Bengali Muslim literati and the development of Muslim community in Bengal. Indian Institute of Advanced Study. ISBN 9788179860120.
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