Silesia tension between the Poles and Germans. Boundaries in 1921. In the history of the 20th century, the Interwar period lasted from 11 November 1918 to 1 September 1939 (20 years, 9 months and 21 days), the end of the First World War and the beginning of the Second World War. The Interwar period was relatively short, yet featured many ...
- Politics of 1920s
- Great Depression
- Commonwealth and Empire
- Foreign Policy
- Popular Culture
- See Also
- Further Reading
- External Links
The Representation of the People Act 1918 finally gave Britain universal manhood suffrage at age 21, with no property qualifications. Even more dramatically it opened up woman suffrage for most women over the age of 30. In 1928, all women were covered on the same terms as men. With the emergence of revolutionary forces, most notably in Bolshevik Russia and Socialist Germany, but also in Hungary, Italy and elsewhere, revolution to overthrow established elites and aristocracies was in the air....
An armed insurrection by Irish republicans known as the Easter Rising took place in Dublin during Easter Week, 1916. It was badly organised, and quickly suppressed by the Army. The government responded with harsh repression, 2000 arrests, and quick execution of 15 leaders. The Catholic Irish then underwent a dramatic change of mood, and shifted to demand vengeance and independence. In 1917 David Lloyd George called the 1917–18 Irish Convention in an attempt to settle the outstanding Home Rule...
Expanding the welfare state
Two major programmes dealing with unemploymentand housing that permanently expanded the welfare state passed in 1919 and 1920 with surprisingly little debate, even as the Conservatives dominated parliament. The Unemployment Insurance Act 1920 expanded the provisions of the National Insurance Act 1911. It set up the dole system that provided 39 weeks of unemployment benefits to practically the entire civilian working population except domestic servants, farm workers, and civil servants. Funded...
Taxes rose sharply during the war and never returned to their old levels. A rich man paid 8% of his income in taxes before the war, and about a third afterward. Much of the money went on unemployment benefits. About 5% of the national income every year was transferred from the rich to the poor. A. J. P. Taylorargues most people "were enjoying a richer life than any previously known in the history of the world: longer holidays, shorter hours, higher real wages." The British economy was lackluster in the 1920s, with sharp declines and high unemployment in heavy industry and coal, especially in Scotland and Wales. Exports of coal and steel halved by 1939 and the business community was slow to adopt the new labour and management principles coming from the US, such as Fordism, consumer credit, eliminating surplus capacity, designing more structured management, and using greater economies of scale.For over a century the shipping industry had dominated world trade, but it remained in the d...
The Great Depression originated on Wall Street in the United States in late 1929, and quickly spread to the rest of the world. The main impact of the economic slump was felt in 1931.Unlike Germany, Canada and Australia, Britain had not experienced a boom in the 1920s, so the downturn was less severe and ended sooner.
After taking over the League of Nations mandates on certain German and Ottoman territories in 1919, the British Empire reached its territorial peak. The interwar years saw extensive efforts for economic and educational development of the colonies. The Dominionswere prosperous and largely took care of themselves. By far the most troublesome areas for London were India and Palestine. The Dominions (Canada, Australia, South Africa, and New Zealand) achieved virtual independence in foreign policy in the Statute of Westminster 1931, though each depended heavily upon British naval protection. After 1931 trade policy favoured Imperial Preferencewith higher tariffs against the U.S. and all others outside the Commonwealth. In India, the forces of nationalism were being organised by the Indian National Congress, led by Mahatma Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru. India contributed significantly to victory in the World War, and was bitterly disappointed by the very limited benefits conferred in the Go...
Britain had suffered little physical devastation during the war but the cost in death and disability and money were very high. In the Khaki Election of 1918, coming a month after the Allied victory over Germany, Lloyd George promised to impose a harsh treaty on Germany. At the Paris Peace Conference in early 1919, however, he took a much more moderate approach. France and Italy demanded and achieved harsh terms, including German admission of guilt for starting the war (which humiliated Germany), and a demand that Germany pay the entire Allied cost of the war, including veterans' benefits and interest. Britain reluctantly supported the Treaty of Versailles, although many experts, most famously John Maynard Keynes, thought it too harsh on Germany Britain began to look on a restored Germany as an important trading partner and worried about the effect of reparations on the British economy. In the end the United States financed German debt payments to Britain, France and the other Allies...
While the Church of England was historically identified with the upper classes, and with the rural gentry, William Temple (1881–1944) was both a prolific theologian and a social activist, preaching Christian socialism.He served as bishop of Manchester and York, and in 1942 became Archbishop of Canterbury. He advocated a broad and inclusive membership in the Church of England as a means of continuing and expanding the church's position as the established church. Temple was troubled by the high degree of animosity inside, and between the leading religious groups in Britain. In the 1930s he promoted ecumenicism, working to establish better relationships with the Nonconformists, Jews and Catholics, managing in the process to overcome his anti-Catholic bias.
After the war, the major newspapers engaged in a large-scale circulation race. The political parties, which long had sponsored their own papers, could not keep up, and one after another their outlets were sold or closed down. Sales in the millions depended on popular stories, with a strong human interesting theme, as well as detailed sports reports with the latest scores. Serious news was a niche market and added very little to the circulation base. The niche was dominated by The Times and, t...
As leisure, literacy, wealth, ease of travel, and a broadened sense of community grew in Britain from the late 19th century onward, there was more time and interest in leisure activities of all sorts, on the part of all classes. Drinking was differentiated by class. with upper-class clubs, and working-class and middle-class pubs. However, drinking as a way of spending leisure time and spare cash declined during the Depression and pub attendance never returned to 1930 levels; it fell far below...
Cinema and radio
The British film industry emerged in the 1890s, and built heavily on the strong reputation of the London legitimate theatre for actors, directors, and producers. The problem was that the American market was so much larger and richer. It bought up the top talent, especially when Hollywood came to the fore in the 1920s and produced over 80 percent of the total world output. Efforts to fight back were futile — the government set a quota for British made films, but it failed. Hollywood furthermor...Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (2004) online; short scholarly biographies of all the major peopleAddison, Paul. Churchill on the home front 1900–1955(1992), pp. 199–35.Aldcroft, Derek H. The British Economy. Volume 1: The Years of Turmoil, 1920–1951(1986); economic historian; uses only basic descriptive statisticsBew, John. Clement Attlee: The man who made modern Britain(2017) pp. 95–218.
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Some refer rather to a multi-current revolutionary regime with no force assuming a clearly dictatorial role, though many - e.g. the Communists or the Anarchists - willing to introduce their own type of dictatorship, Stanley G. Payne, The Spanish Civil War, Cambridge 2012, ISBN 9780521174701, p. 96.
In the Interwar period in Yugoslavia (1918–41), there were several veteran associations of Serbian guerrillas (known as " Chetniks ") that had fought in Ottoman Macedonia (1903–12), Balkan Wars (1912–13) and World War I (1914–18). Leading Chetniks were split between the Democratic Party (DS) and Radical Party (RS), and also between ties ...
- Page Organisation
- Dalism by 126.96.36.199
- Hmm. Interbellum
- More Info..
- Spanish Civil War
- About Finland
- Other Interwar Periods/Events
- Very Poor Article
I don't understand why there's links to a bunch of history articles? -b01:29, 2 January 2007 (UTC) Changed the opening to refer to the period as between wars, being WWI and WWII. Since WWI started in Europe and WWII started in several places, but also in Europe, the context is that between 2 wars can only refer to the European theatre and thus the years 1918 to 1939. I removed wording as it being known as the period between the wars as the title is obvious, which doen not go for the word interbellumPrudentia (talk) —Preceding undatedcomment added 05:20, 3 October 2011 (UTC).
"The idea behind the creation of the League was a good idea because its primary aims still remain important in today’s society however it was badly administered." I'm not promotign debate on whether or not the ideas behind the League of Nations were good or not, but rather pointing out that such editorializations do not belong on Wikipedia. Could be rephrased to: "Though the League of Nations was continually undermined and ultimately dissolved, many of the original goals of the League are still pursued by the United Nations, the spiritual successor of the League of Nations." Not only does it remove the editorializing, it also provides needed reference to the comparison between the League and the UN. 188.8.131.52 (talk) 05:10, 21 December 2007 (UTC)Mic check —Preceding unsigned comment added by 184.108.40.206 (talk) 16:10, 2 October 2008 (UTC)
Can someone revert this article to it's previous version, as it shows clear signs of vandalism. —The preceding unsigned comment was added by 220.127.116.11 (talk) 16:42, 15 January 2007 (UTC).
just a thought, but shouldn't that be interbella? (generally, words ending in -um have a plural ending in -aand interbellum means between the wars, which is plural.) is there an established grammatical consensus that it is indeed interbellum? Maybe Bellum is being used in a more abstract, all inclusive fashion to mean warfare in general, so by being between two world wars, the Interbellum period is between periods of war, hence Inter-Bellum. D Boland (talk) 01:29, 9 March 2008 (UTC) Is it anything to do with the case of "bellum"?Also - is it just american english - i'm sure i've seen it referred to as interbellum in (english) history books18.104.22.168 (talk) 13:10, 28 May 2008 (UTC) ~~Interbellum is Latin, so it can be used in English regardless of dialect. In fact, I'm removing that reference, because it is unverified that it is exclusively used in "American English". As a speaker of British English I can tell you that it is certainly used in Commonwealth nations. —Preceding unsig...
The interbella was a time of great social change. This is crucial and should be included. yeee —Preceding unsigned comment added by 22.214.171.124 (talk) 14:25, 5 May 2009 (UTC)
The Spanish Civil War was one of the most important events in the period and it isn't even mentioned in the article. —Preceding unsigned comment added by 126.96.36.199 (talk) 06:52, 19 February 2010 (UTC) 1. 1.1. Good Point. this war has been added, Rjensen (talk) 07:34, 5 April 2018 (UTC)
I don't think it's important to include a distinction of "interwar period" from the infrequently used "intrawar" in this article. In any case, surely the lead is not where to put it. Per the nutshell statement at WP:LEAD, "The lead should define the topic and summarize the body of the article with appropriate weight." Since the brief mention of "intrawar" is never addressed again, I'm going to remove it, on second thought. Here is the last version of the text I am removing: In contrast to the interwar period, historians refer to the time of the First World War (1914–1918) and the Second World War (1939-1945) as "intrawar" periods. -Phoenixrod (talk) 05:43, 2 October 2010 (UTC) 1. This is standard disambiguation (but for not having its own topic): "intrawar" is most commonly a typo. I am also of opinion that all dictionary words should link to topics (if not to Wiktionary). But this is a continuation of a faraway conflict, as a third party says. I could stub "intrawa...
I would add a link about Heimosodat to Finland section because it was pretty important part of Finnish Interwar period. --Fenn-O-maniC (talk) 15:06, 11 August 2011 (UTC)
This list seems like OR to me. Any period between wars could be so called, but I think that to avoid WP:INDISCRIMINATE and OR this list should only contain common usage as verified in reliable sources of the term "interbellum" or "inter-war period" to describe periods between wars. -- PBS (talk) 11:13, 3 October 2011 (UTC) 1. 1.1. This article should be renamed, because while it's true that "inter-war period" may refer to any period between two wars, the Interwar is the one between 1918 and 1939. walk victor falktalk14:20, 14 July 2014 (UTC)
For god sake, "interwar period" is just a convenient expression to denote the 20-year period between the two WWs. It's ridiculous to attempt to summarize, as this overlinked, high-school entry level article attempt to do, some political events that have occurred during those twenty years because then even a summary of political events would be at least 10 times the length of this article. And then, why limit oneself to political eventsas it is done here? The expression "Interwar period" is used just as much, if not more so, in non-political contexts ("French cinema in the interwar period", "The decorative arts during the interwar period", etc.). IMO, a broad definition of the expression would have been sufficient (avoiding pedantic references to the "Treaty of Versailles" and the "Invasion of Poland" etc. because "end of World War I" and "beginning of World War II would have been quite sufficient)..--Lubiesque (talk) 16:26, 14 December 2014 (UTC) 1. Yup. This article would serve its...
In the history of the 20th century, the Interwar period lasted from 11 November 1918 to 1 September 1939 , the end of the First World War and the beginning of the Second World War. The Interwar period was relatively short, yet featured many significant social, political, and economic changes throughout the world.