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The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age division of the prehistory and protohistory of humanity.It was preceded by the Bronze Age and the Stone Age (Paleolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic, and Chalcolithic).
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- Greek Dark Ages
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The Iron Age began around 1200 B.C. in the Mediterranean region and Near East with the collapse of several prominent Bronze Age civilizations, including the Mycenaean civilization in Greece and the Hittite Empire in Turkey. Ancient cities including Troy and Gaza were destroyed, trade routes were lost and literacy declined throughout the region.The cause for the collapse of these Bronze Age kingdoms remains unclear. Archaeological evidence suggests a succession of severe droughts in the easter...
Greece had become a major hub of activity and culture on the Mediterranean during the late Bronze Age. The Mycenaean civilization was rich in material wealth from trade. Mycenaeans built large palaces and a society with strict class hierarchy.But around 1200 B.C. Mycenaean Greece collapsed. Greece entered a period of turmoil sometimes called the Greek Dark Ages.Archaeologists believe there may have been a period of famine in which Greece’s population dropped dramatically during this time. Maj...
During the Iron Age in the Near East, nomadic pastoralists who raised sheep, goats and cattle on the Iranian plateau began to develop a state that would become known as Persia.The Persians established their empire at a time after humans had learned to make steel. Steel weapons were sharper and stronger than earlier bronze or stone weapons.The ancient Persians also fought on horseback. They may have been the first civilization to develop an armored cavalry in which horses and riders were compl...
Life in Iron Age Europe was primarily rural and agricultural. Iron tools made farming easier.Celts lived across most of Europe during the Iron Age. The Celts were a collection of tribes with origins in central Europe. They lived in small communities or clans and shared a similar language, religious beliefs, traditions and culture. It’s believed that Celtic culture started to evolve as early as 1200 B.C.The Celts migrated throughout Western Europe—including Britain, Ireland, France and Spain....
People throughout much of Celtic Europe lived in hill forts during the Iron Age. Walls and ditches surrounded the forts, and warriors defended hill forts against attacks by rival clans.Inside the hill forts, families lived in simple, round houses made of mud and wood with thatched roofs. They grew crops and kept livestock, including goats, sheep, pigs, cows and geese.
Hundreds of bog bodies dating back to the Iron Age have been discovered across Northern Europe. Bog bodies are corpses that have been naturally mummified or preserved in peat bogs.Examples of Iron Age bog bodies include the Tollund Man, found in Denmark, and the Gallagh Man from Ireland.The mysterious bog bodies appear to have at least one thing in common: They died brutal deaths. For instance, Lindow Man, found near Manchester, England, appears to have been hit over the head, had his throat...
Greek Dark Age; Ancient History Encyclopedia.Overview: Iron Age, 800 BC - AD 43; BBC.Bog Bodies of the Iron Age; PBS.
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Iron Age, final technological and cultural stage in the Stone–Bronze–Iron Age sequence in which iron for the most part replaced bronze in implements and weapons. The date of the Iron Age varied geographically, beginning in the Middle East and southeastern Europe about 1200 BCE but in China not until about 600 CE.
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Imagine you live in the ancient Mediterranean or the Middle East, and plow your fields with strong bronze tools. When soldiers march past, their polished, bronze armor gleams in the sunlight. Then one day, a strange army rides in to conquer your lands. You watch your powerful armies get defeated quickly; their swords shattering against the strangers' weapons. Who are these invaders and what composes their incredible weapons? These conquerors were the Hittites and their weapons were made of a...
The Iron Age was not a single time period that occurred simultaneously around the world. Instead, the Iron Age refers to when people in a particular location learned to use iron for tools and weapons as well as when they started using iron more than other metals. Iron Age civilizations were still considered prehistoric because most of them did not keep detailed written records of their history. In most circumstances, these societies passed through three ages of technology starting with the St...
True to its name, the Iron Age's main characteristic involved iron. In most regions, the primary material for making tools was bronze, an alloy composed of copper and tin. It's likely bronze would have remained dominant in Western civilization if tin had not been so rare. Between 1800 BCE and 1700 BCE, sudden scarcity in tin caused a steep decline in bronze tool and weapon production. During this time, copper too began to run short. Pirates and raiders began attacking communities to steal any...
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Nov 01, 2019 · The European Iron Age (~800-51 BC) is what archaeologists have called that period of time in Europe when the development of complex urban societies was spurred by intensive manufacturing of bronze and iron, and extensive trading in and out of the Mediterranean basin.
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The Iron Age The Israelites in Palestine Though the Israelite tribes entered Palestine before the end of the Late Bronze Age , they did not become firmly established in their new home until the early decades of the 12th century bce .
- The Stone Age
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Divided into three periods: Paleolithic (or Old Stone Age), Mesolithic (or Middle Stone Age), and Neolithic (or New Stone Age), this era is marked by the use of tools by our early human ancestors (who evolved around 300,000 B.C.) and the eventual transformation from a culture of hunting and gathering to farming and food production. During this era, early humans shared the planet with a number of now-extinct hominin relatives, including Neanderthals and Denisovans. In the Paleolithic period (roughly 2.5 million years ago to 10,000 B.C.), early humans lived in caves or simple huts or tepees and were hunters and gatherers. They used basic stone and bone tools, as well as crude stone axes, for hunting birds and wild animals. They cooked their prey, including woolly mammoths, deer and bison, using controlled fire. They also fished and collected berries, fruit and nuts. Ancient humans in the Paleolithic period were also the first to leave behind art. They used combinations of minerals, oc...
During the Bronze Age(about 3,000 B.C. to 1,300 B.C.), metalworking advances were made, as bronze, a copper and tin alloy, was discovered. Now used for weapons and tools, the harder metal replaced its stone predecessors, and helped spark innovations including the ox-drawn plow and the wheel. This time period also brought advances in architecture and art, including the invention of the potter’s wheel, and textiles—clothing consisted of mostly wool items such as skirts, kilts, tunics and cloaks. Home dwellings morphed to so-called roundhouses, consisting of a circular stone wall with a thatched or turf roof, complete with a fireplace or hearth, and more villages and cities began to form. Organized government, law and warfare, as well as beginnings of religion, also came into play during the Bronze Age, perhaps most notably relating to theancient Egyptians who built the pyramids during this time. The earliest written accounts, including Egyptian hieroglyphsand petroglyphs (rock engravi...
The discovery of ways to heat and forge iron kicked off the Iron Age(roughly 1,300 B.C. to 900 B.C.). At the time, the metal was seen as more precious than gold, and wrought iron (which would be replaced by steel with the advent of smelting iron) was easier to manufacture than bronze. Along with mass production of steel tools and weapons, the age saw even further advances in architecture, with four-room homes, some complete with stables for animals, joining more rudimentary hill forts, as well as royal palaces, temples and other religious structures. Early city planning also took place, with blocks of homes being erected along paved or cobblestone streets and water systems put into place. Agriculture, art and religion all became more sophisticated, and writing systems and written documentation, including alphabets, began to emerge, ushering in the Early Historical Period. READ MORE: Massive Bronze Age City Discovered Underwater in Greece
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