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  1. Cholera - World Health Organization
    • Symptoms
    • History
    • Vibrio cholerae Strains
    • Epidemiology, Risk Factors, and Disease Burden
    • Prevention and Control
    • Surveillance
    • Water and Sanitation Interventions
    • Treatment
    • Hygiene Promotion and Social Mobilisation
    • Oral Cholera Vaccines

    Cholera is an extremely virulent disease that can cause severe acute watery diarrhoea. It takes between 12 hours and 5 days for a person to show symptoms after ingesting contaminated food or water (2). Cholera affects both children and adults and can kill within hours if untreated. Most people infected with V. choleraedo not develop any symptoms, although the bacteria are present in their faeces for 1-10 days after infection and are shed back into the environment, potentially infecting other people. Among people who develop symptoms, the majority have mild or moderate symptoms, while a minority develop acute watery diarrhoea with severe dehydration. This can lead to death if left untreated.

    During the 19th century, cholera spread across the world from its original reservoir in the Ganges delta in India. Six subsequent pandemics killed millions of people across all continents. The current (seventh) pandemic started in South Asia in 1961, and reached Africa in 1971 and the Americas in 1991. Cholera is now endemic in many countries.

    There are many serogroups of V. cholerae, but only two – O1 and O139 – cause outbreaks. V. cholerae O1 has caused all recent outbreaks. V. choleraeO139 – first identified in Bangladesh in 1992 – caused outbreaks in the past, but recently has only been identified in sporadic cases. It has never been identified outside Asia. There is no difference in the illness caused by the two serogroups.

    Cholera can be endemic or epidemic. A cholera-endemic area is an area where confirmed cholera cases were detected during the last 3 years with evidence of local transmission (meaning the cases are not imported from elsewhere). A cholera outbreak/epidemic can occur in both endemic countries and in countries where cholera does not regularly occur. In cholera endemic countries an outbreak can be seasonal or sporadic and represents a greater than expected number of cases. In a country where cholera does not regularly occur, an outbreak is defined by the occurrence of at least 1 confirmed case of cholera with evidence of local transmission in an area where there is not usually cholera. Cholera transmission is closely linked to inadequate access to clean water and sanitation facilities. Typical at-risk areas include peri-urban slums, and camps for internally displaced persons or refugees, where minimum requirements of clean water and sanitation are not been met. The consequences of a huma...

    A multifaceted approach is key to control cholera, and to reduce deaths. A combination of surveillance, water, sanitation and hygiene, social mobilisation, treatment, and oral cholera vaccines are used.

    Cholera surveillance should be part of an integrated disease surveillance system that includes feedback at the local level and information-sharing at the global level. Cholera cases are detected based on clinical suspicion in patients who present with severe acute watery diarrhoea. The suspicion is then confirmed by identifying V. choleraein stool samples from affected patients. Detection can be facilitated using rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), where one or more positive samples triggers a cholera alert. The samples are sent to a laboratory for confirmation by culture or PCR. Local capacity to detect (diagnose) and monitor (collect, compile, and analyse data) cholera occurrence, is central to an effective surveillance system and to planning control measures. Countries affected by cholera are encouraged to strengthen disease surveillance and national preparedness to rapidly detect and respond to outbreaks. Under the International Health Regulations, notification of all cases of choler...

    The long-term solution for cholera control lies in economic development and universal access to safe drinking water and adequate sanitation. Actions targeting environmental conditions include the iimplementation of adapted long-term sustainable WASH solutions to ensure use of safe water, basic sanitation and good hygiene practices in cholera hotspots. In addition to cholera, such interventions prevent a wide range of other water-borne illnesses, as well as contributing to achieving goals related to poverty, malnutrition, and education. The WASH solutions for cholera are aligned with those of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG 6).

    Cholera is an easily treatable disease. The majority of people can be treated successfully through prompt administration of oral rehydration solution (ORS). The WHO/UNICEF ORS standard sachet is dissolved in 1 litre (L) of clean water. Adult patients may require up to 6 L of ORS to treat moderate dehydration on the first day. Severely dehydrated patients are at risk of shock and require the rapid administration of intravenous fluids. These patients are also given appropriate antibiotics to diminish the duration of diarrhoea, reduce the volume of rehydration fluids needed, and shorten the amount and duration of V. choleraeexcretion in their stool. Mass administration of antibiotics is not recommended, as it has no proven effect on the spread of cholera may contribute to antimicrobial resistance. Rapid access to treatment is essential during a cholera outbreak. Oral rehydration should be available in communities, in addition to larger treatment centres that can provide intravenous flu...

    Health education campaigns, adapted to local culture and beliefs, should promote the adoption of appropriate hygiene practices such as hand-washing with soap, safe preparation and storage of food and safe disposal of the faeces of children. Funeral practices for individuals who die from cholera must be adapted to prevent infection among attendees. Further, awareness campaigns should be organised during outbreaks, and information should be provided to the community about the potential risks and symptoms of cholera, precautions to take to avoid cholera, when and where to report cases and to seek immediate treatment when symptoms appear. The location of appropriate treatment sites should also be shared. Community engagement is key to long term changes in behaviour and to the control of cholera.

    Currently there are three WHO pre-qualified oral cholera vaccines (OCV): Dukoral®, Shanchol™, and Euvichol-Plus®. All three vaccines require two doses for full protection. Dukoral® is administered with a buffer solution that, for adults, requires 150 ml of clean water. Dukoral can be given to all individuals over the age of 2 years. There must be a minimum of 7 days, and no more than 6 weeks, delay between each dose. Children aged 2 -5 require a third dose. Dukoral® is mainly used for travellers. Two doses of Dukoral® provide protection against cholera for 2 years. Shanchol™ and Euvichol-Plus® are essentially the same vaccine produced by two different manufacturers. They do not require a buffer solution for administration. They are given to all individuals over the age of one year. There must be a minimum of two weeks delay between each dose of these two vaccines. Two doses of Shanchol™ and Euvichol-Plus® provide protection against cholera for three years, while one dose provides sh...

  2. Cholera - Wikipedia

    6 days ago · Cholera in post-revolutionary Paris: a cultural history (U of California Press, 1996). Legros, Dominique. "Global cholera epidemiology: opportunities to reduce the burden of cholera by 2030." The Journal of infectious diseases 218.suppl_3 (2018): S137-S140. online; Mukharji, Projit Bihari.

  3. Communicable Diseases List | With Examples and Prevention ...

    Jan 27, 2021 · Communicable diseases by bacteria are most prevalent and difficult to eradicate from the human population. Cholera: This is caused by bacteria namely Vibrio cholera. There are immense watery, loose motions, and mostly fatal. Typhoid: This is characterized by prolonged fever and is caused by Salmonella typhi. Diphtheria: This is an infectious condition of the buccal cavity and trachea. It is very fatal.

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  5. How COVID-19 Compares to Other Outbreaks

    Feb 05, 2021 · In fact, since the beginning of time, there have been contagious diseases that have disrupted life and wreaked havoc on the world’s human population. How COVID-19 Compares to Other Outbreaks Learn about infectious disease outbreaks throughout history, including cholera, smallpox, Spanish flu of 1918, and bubonic plague, and how they compare ...

    • Karon Warren
  6. What Is the Difference between Communicable and Non ...
    • Overview
    • Prevention
    • Causes
    • Prognosis
    • Clinical significance

    Communicable disease refers to diseases that can pass from one person to another. Non-communicable diseases occur in one person and cannot be passed on to another person. Communicable diseases are also known as infectious diseases, and non-communicable diseases are referred to as chronic. Communicable and non-communicable disease usually require different treatments.

    The separation of illness into communicable and non-communicable disease is useful for developing prevention and control strategies. The distinction does not mean that one group is intrinsically more dangerous than the other, although the World Heath Organization (WHO) estimates that 60 percent of deaths worldwide are caused by non-communicable diseases. Communicable diseases are more prevalent in underdeveloped countries than developed countries.

    According to the WHO, there are four types of non-communicable diseases. These are cardiovascular disease, cancers, non-infectious diseases of the respiratory system, and diabetes. The major causes of these diseases are lifestyle related. Lack of exercise, smoking, unhealthy diet, and abuse of alcohol are all important causes. Communicable diseases are caused by infectious organisms, like bacteria, fungi, and yeast. Viruses and parasites can also be spread from person to person or from animal to person. A communicable disease can spread directly from person to person, such as in the case of a cold or flu virus. It can also spread indirectly from a person to another person. Malaria is an example of an indirect transmission. To illustrate, an infected mosquito feeds and subsequently infects one person. Then, another mosquito can feed from that person, picking up the parasite and infecting the next person it feeds from.

    One important difference between communicable and non-communicable disease is that non-communicable diseases tend to be chronic, which means they last a long time and progress slowly. Communicable diseases are more likely to be acute, which means the disease develops quickly. Both types of disease may require medication, but non-communicable diseases may be better treated with lifestyle changes.

    The line between communicable and non-communicable disease is sometimes blurred. Certain chronic diseases are actually caused by an infectious organism when previously they were thought to be unrelated to infection. Cervical cancer is one such case; it is caused by the human papilloma virus. Also, Epstein-Barr virus can cause various types of lymphoma cancers. Research is ongoing into other chronic diseases to see if they are caused by communicable diseases.

  7. Diseases and epidemics of the 19th century - Wikipedia

    Feb 17, 2021 · Cholera is transmitted primarily by drinking water or eating food that has been contaminated by the cholera bacterium. The bacteria multiply in the small intestine; [17] the feces (waste product) of an infected person, including one with no apparent symptoms, can pass on the disease if it contacts the water supply by any means.

  8. Non-Communicable Diseases: Examples and List |
    • Overview
    • Cause
    • Clinical significance
    • Symptoms
    • Scope
    • Signs and symptoms
    • Mechanism

    An NCD or non-communicable disease is a disease that is not infectious and cannot be transferred to others. Some of these are diseases that progress slowly or cause chronic symptoms while others progress very rapidly. The World Health Organization estimates that NCDs are the leading cause of death worldwide, accounting for 60 percent of deaths in all humans. In most cases NCDs attack the body individually rather than being related to each other.

    Risk Factors of NCD: Some risk factors of non-communicable diseases include the environment, lifestyle or background such as the genetics, age, exposure to air pollution or gender of a person. Some behaviors such as a lack of physical activity, poor diet or smoking which could lead to obesity or hypertension can also increase the risk of developing some non-communicable diseases. Many of these are considered preventable because the condition can be improved by removing the at-risk behavior. This is caused when an individual consistently has a blood pressure reading over 140/90. This can be caused by diabetes, smoking, excessive salt intake, obesity or kidney disease. This condition causes a decrease in bone mass which can make the bones brittle and at higher risk for damage. Around 80 percent of people who have osteoporosis are women. Additional factors which increase the risk of this disease are the presence of diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, inactivity, low sex hormone levels or smoking. Skin cancer is caused when ultraviolet rays damage the skin cells. This can appear anywhere on the body but is most common on the skin. Those that have low pigmentation in the skin such as redheads, blondes or those with blue eyes tend to be at higher risk for this disease. Limiting direct skin exposure can significantly reduce the risk of developing skin cancer and with early detection this disease is 95 percent curable. Seizures are caused by a neurologic malfunction that causes abnormal electrical activity within the brain. These can be localized or cause symptoms such as numbness that stems from an explosive firing of nerves in the brain. Tumors or brain damage can cause someone to develop this disease.There is no cure for epilepsy but medications can help to reduce the frequency of seizures. Genetic diseases are caused by hereditary factors passed down by parents to children and also along extended generational lines. Chromosomal errors passed on to offspring result in a long list of recognized clinical diseases. Environmental diseases often are the result of the interplay between a combination of environmental exposures, lifestyle factors, diet and occupational hazards.

    Diabetes limits the bodys ability to process glucose normally. Type 1 diabetes which is present from birth causes the pancreas to be destroyed by the immune system, causing glucose to build up in the bloodstream. Type 2 diabetes is developed over time causing the cells to resist the effects of insulin, causing unhealthy levels of glucose in the bloodstream. Risk factor of Type 2 diabetes is being overweight or obese.

    This condition causes dementia in those in advanced age, or over 60 years old. Symptoms of this condition can vary but often include getting lost, memory loss, difficulty managing daily tasks or managing money, personality changes, loss of bodily control or delusions.

    This is a very broad category of diseases which impact the circulatory system or heart. This can include congenital heart disease, rhythm irregularities, heart failure, heart attack, unstable angina, mitral valve prolapse, aortic regurgitation, cardiogenic shock or endocarditis.

    Among the non communicable diseases list, this disease causes damage to soft tissue in the body. It can lead to sleep disturbance patterns, widespread pain, exhaustion or irregular heartbeat. With time the symptoms can progress causing cognitive or memory difficulties, jaw pain, nasal congestion, headaches or irritable bowel syndrome.

    Leukemia causes the body to produce abnormal blood cells that then release malignant cells into the bloodstream. Since the bloodstream carries these malignant cells throughout the body they can affect other tissues such as the nervous system, skin or liver. While this disease is often associated with children, most patients are actually men over 60.

  9. Theories of Disease | Epidemiology | Microbe Notes

    Feb 04, 2021 · It held that diseases such as cholera, chlamydia infection, or the Black Death were caused by a miasma, a noxious form of “bad air” emanating from rotting organic matter. Miasma was considered to be a poisonous vapor or mist filled with particles from decomposed matter (miasmata) that was identifiable by its foul smell.

  10. (PDF) The Burden of Communicable and Non-Communicable ...

    Feb 16, 2021 · The Burden of Communicable and Non-communicable Diseases in Developing Countries 2.6 Obesity A cc or ding to the W orld Healt h Organi sat ion, obe sity is defined as ‘ ‘a condi tio n of ...

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