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The Viceroyalty of New Spain was created by royal decree on October 12, 1535 in the Kingdom of New Spain with a Viceroy as the king's "deputy" or substitute. This was the first New World viceroyalty and one of only two the Spanish empire had in the continent until the 18th-century Bourbon Reforms .
1787 Intendencia of Puebla, part of New Spain. 1821 Part of independent Mexico (part of Puebla ). Political and Military Governors
The Spanish conquest of Guatemala was a protracted conflict during the Spanish colonization of the Americas, in which Spanish colonisers gradually incorporated the territory that became the modern country of Guatemala into the colonial Viceroyalty of New Spain.
- Spanish victory
The Captaincy-General of Guatemala is created incorporating the lands from the Isthmus of Tehuantepec south to the swampy lowlands of southern Panama. It is under the authority of the viceroy of New Spain. ca. 1561. The cathedral of Mérida is built on top of the ruins of a Maya shrine. ca. 1562
- Building An Empire
- New Spain Government
- The Northern Borderlands
- The Last Years of The Empire
- Mexican Independence
Spain's mission to build an empire in the New World began with the expeditions of a Genoan seafarer named Christopher Columbus (1451–1506), who convinced the Spanish royalty he could find a western route across the Atlantic Ocean to the Indies (Asia). He sailed west in 1492 and six months later landed on islands in the Caribbean Sea. Columbus mistakenly concluded he had reached the Indies and brought news of his new route back to Spain. In 1501, Amerigo Vespucci (1454–1512), for whom the Americas were ultimately named, sailed far down the coast of South America. Vespucci proved what had long been suspected: Columbus had landed nowhere near Asia, but he had discovered an unknown continent—the New World. With the aid of several explorers—Vasco Núnez de Balboa (1475–1519), who traveled across the Isthmus of Panama; Juan Ponce de León (1460–1521), who explored Florida; Hernando de Soto (c. 1500–1542), who navigated the Mississippi River; and Francisco Vásquez de Coronado (c. 1510—1554),...
Spain was fast and effective in claiming its huge empire in the Americas. Its conquest of American natives happened within a few decades. Spanish conquistadors, or conquerors, destroyed the two most powerful civilizations of the New World, the Aztecs in present-day Mexico in 1521 and the Incas in Peru in 1535. After winning the battles, the conquistadors killed the leaders of each civilization and took over their leadership, demanding obedience, labor, and conversion to Christianity of the survivors. The Spanish sought wealth in the New World. They had found supplies of gold and silver but needed miners to extract the precious metals. They also established plantations, growing sugar and other crops, and needed farm workers. For labor, the new rulers initially relied on the encomiendasystem, a system of labor in which the Spanish government awarded individual conquistadors with the labor and goods of the native people of a region. Encomienda virtually enslaved the native people. Spai...
In 1524 Spanish King Charles V (1519–1556) created the Council of the Indies to govern the New World territories. In New Spain, he appointed two separate audiencias (courts that combined judicial, legislative, and administrative functions) and then named a viceroy. The viceroy was the chief executive, but his powers were limited by the audi-encia. The government of New Spain drew on many Spanish traditions. Towns established cabildos (town councils) and were headed by local officials. On paper, the Spanish government in Mexico Cityruled over all the remote areas of New Spain. In reality, there was considerable local self-government. Communication between Spain and the Indies was slow, and local royal officials were as likely to follow the desires of local rulers as they were to carry out the wishes of the Crown.
The desire to conquer new lands and to find more gold and silver led explorers into the vast territories of the north. The expeditions of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries expanded Spanish claims into what are now the southeastern Gulf Coast states and the entire Southwest of the United States. It was far too vast a domain to be held militarily, and it produced no golden cities. Thus only isolated outposts were established, the most important of which were in the present states of Texas , New Mexico , and California. The sparsely populated northern frontier regions had to adapt to frontier life and thus differed in structure from southern New Spain. The most important frontier institutions were the presidios (military garrisons) and the Spanish missions, where Franciscan, Jesuit, and Dominican missionaries attempted to convert Indians to Catholicism and integrate them into colonial society. Towns gradually grew up around some of the missions. The most successful and prosperous...
By the early nineteenth century, New Spain was large and well populated, with slightly over six million people. This was only one million fewer than the population of the United States. Mexico City was the largest city in the Americas. In Spain, only Madrid was larger. The people of New Spain were divided into castas, or castes. Indians made up 60 percent of the population. People of mixed racial ancestry made up another 22 percent. The remaining 18 percent were Europeans, of whom nearly all were criollos (people of Spanish ancestry, but born in the New World). Only 0.2 percent were peninsulares, or Spanish-born Spaniards, who held all the high offices in the colonial administration, military, and church. The criollos were usually local leaders, holding nearly two-thirds of colonial administrative offices, and filling the lower ranks of the military and clergy. Criollos also owned mines and haciendas (plantations or large estates). The urban poor lived on the edge of starvation, reg...
France invaded Spain in 1808, and two years later Mexico began its war of independence. Spain was severely weakened. The United States absorbed much of West Florida in 1810 and 1814. On two occasions, it invaded the parts of Florida still under nominal Spanish rule to suppress raids on U.S. territory by hostile Indians. In 1821, Spain, unable to control the territory, sold Florida to the United States. That same year, a Mexican rebellion ended Spanish rule there (and in Texas) and the colonial empire of New Spain was dissolved. By 1898, Spain had relinquished all its possessions in North America.
The province of Guatemala is established out of Chiapas, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua. While formally subject to New Spain, the region is administered separately as a matter of practicality.
Sep 13, 2020 · A Map of Mexico or New Spain, Florida now called Louisiana and Part of California &c. By H. Moll Geographer.jpg 1,612 × 1,200; 2.35 MB A map of New Spain, from 16⁰ to 38⁰ North latitude reduced from the large map LOC 2006626018.jpg 3,508 × 5,055; 2.83 MB
Spain - Spain - Spain in 1600: It is not surprising that the enormous exertions of the last quarter of the 16th century, with its mixture of triumphs, disappointments, and miseries, should have been followed by a general mood of introspection and even disenchantment. This was particularly evident in economic and social thinking. The arbitristas (literally, “projectors”) were writers who ...
Spain has colonized : New World 1. Mexico 2. Florida 3. California 4. Nevada 5. Utah 6. Arizona 7. Part of New Mexico 8. Guatemala 9. El Salvador 10. Honduras 11.