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The Viceroyalty of New Spain was created by royal decree on October 12, 1535 in the Kingdom of New Spain with a Viceroy as the king's "deputy" or substitute. This was the first New World viceroyalty and one of only two the Spanish empire had in the continent until the 18th-century Bourbon Reforms .
1697 Missions erected in Baja California, part of New Spain ( Nueva España ) . 1768 Spanish settlement begins.
The province of Guatemala is established out of Chiapas, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua. While formally subject to New Spain, the region is administered separately as a matter of practicality.
- Colonial Administration and Society
- Bourbon Reforms
- Relations with The United States
- Mexican Independence
In 1528 the creation of a high court, the audiencia, marked the first step in a long and ultimately incomplete effort to establish Spanish royal authority throughout the region, followed by the appointment of a viceroy in 1535 to oversee royal interests from the capital of Mexico City. Along with its southern counterpart, the viceroyalty of Peru, New Spain was subject to the legislation of the Council of the Indies, a body of from six to ten royal councilors in Seville overseeing the entirety of Spanish holdings in the Western Hemisphere. During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, Spanish administration of New Spain centered on the mining of silver, the defense of the colony from other European powers, and the evangelization and assimilation of Native American peoples into the Spanish colonial system. In addition to the earlier, better-known waves of conquistadors and missionaries, New Spain attracted numerous colonists and bureaucrats eager to exploit the mineral wealth of the...
During the second half of the eighteenth century, New Spain underwent a series of reforms implemented by the Bourbon dynasty. Spanish monarchs and their administrators attempted to overhaul the machinery of empire and revitalize royal control over the empire's American colonies. These Bourbon Reforms included the curtailment of ecclesiastical power, reapportionment of colonial territory, restructuring of colonial military forces, and new efforts to increase royal revenues. Roman Catholic clergy had participated in the colonization of New Spain from the very beginning, with secular clergy (not members of a particular religious order) serving Spanish colonists in towns and cities and regular clergy establishing convents in settled urban areas and missions on the cultural frontier among newly evangelized indigenous communities. By the mid-eighteenth century the church was increasingly coming into conflict with the interests of the crown, resulting in efforts on the part of the Bourbon...
After the Seven Years' War (1756–1763), Spain was forced to cede Florida to Britain but received the massive Louisiana Territory from France in return. In the interim, between 1763 and the start of the American Revolution, settlers from British colonies in North America began moving southward into Florida and westward into Louisiana. During this period Spain gave Euro-American merchants the right of deposit in New Orleans, allowing them to use the port for their trade goods. In 1779 Spain joined France in supporting the American Revolution against Britain, and the Treaty of Paris on 3 September 1783 returned Florida to the Spanish Empire. Spanish authorities, concerned about the growing influence of Euro-American traders in Louisiana, attempted to close the Lower Mississippi River valley to U.S. trade from 1784 to 1788 and imposed tariffs on American imports and exports through New Orleans from 1788 to 1795. After the United Statesand Spain signed the Treaty of San Lorenzo (Pinckney...
After Napoleon invaded the Iberian Peninsula in 1808, a crisis of political legitimacy occurred throughout Spanish America. In 1810 a parish priest, Miguel Hidalgo, initiated the independence struggle in New Spain by raising a force of peasant soldiers to wrest control of the viceroyalty from peninsular Spaniards. Thousands of indios, castas, and even Creoles joined the insurrection, which experienced sporadic success during the subsequent decade. After initial large-scale battles including tens of thousands of rebels, the independence struggle settled into bitter guerrilla warfarein which individuals often changed their loyalties midstream. This chaotic political atmosphere attracted further filibustering expeditions from the United States and the Louisiana Territory as enterprising and idealistic individuals attempted to take advantage of Spain's predicament and capture Texas. As Mexico's war for independence drew toward its close, Secretary of State John Quincy Adamssigned the Tr...
Archer, Christon I., ed. The Birth of Modern Mexico, 1780–1824.Wilmington, Del. : Scholarly Resources, 2003. Burkholder, Mark A., and Lyman L. Johnson. Colonial Latin America. 5th ed. New York: Oxford UniversityPress, 2004. Chipman, Donald E. Spanish Texas, 1519–1821.Austin: University of Texas Press, 1992. Gerhard, Peter. The North Frontier of New Spain.Rev. ed. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1993. Hamnett, Brian R. Roots of Insurgency: Mexican Regions, 1750–1824. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge UniversityPress, 1986. Meyer, Michael C., and William L. Sherman. The Course of Mexican History. New York: Oxford UniversityPress, 1979. Rodríguez O., Jaime E., ed. Mexico in the Age of Democratic Revolutions, 1750–1850.Boulder, Colo.: Rienner, 1994. Tutino, John. From Insurrection to Revolution: Social Bases of Agrarian Violence, 1750–1940. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton UniversityPress, 1986. Weber, David J. The Spanish Frontier in North America. New Haven, Conn.: Yale UniversityPress, 1992...
Feb 01, 2018 · In Spain’s mighty New World Empire, Central America was but a remote outpost, largely ignored by the colonial authorities. It was part of the Kingdom of New Spain (Mexico) and later controlled by the Captaincy-General of Guatemala.
Sep 13, 2020 · A Map of Mexico or New Spain, Florida now called Louisiana and Part of California &c. By H. Moll Geographer.jpg 1,612 × 1,200; 2.35 MB A map of New Spain, from 16⁰ to 38⁰ North latitude reduced from the large map LOC 2006626018.jpg 3,508 × 5,055; 2.83 MB
Viceroyalty of New Spain, the first of the four viceroyalties that Spain created to govern its conquered lands in the New World. Established in 1535, it initially included all land north of the Isthmus of Panama under Spanish control.
The Conquest of New Spain History – 1492-1901 The Conquest of New Spain History – 1492-1901 At the height of the Spanish Empire (17th Century), the Spanish Empire was the largest empire in the world and included the following modern countries and territories: Bahamas, Belize, Canada (British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan), Cayman Islands, Costa Rica, Cuba,…Continue reading →
Map Description Historical Map of Mexico - The Viceroyalty of New Spain, 1786-1821. Illustrating. The Twelve Intendancies and the Governmental Divisions of New California, Old California, New Mexico, and Tlaxcala. 42nd parallel: Treaty between Spain and the U.S. February 22, 1819 (Adams-Onis Treaty) Great Salt Lake