Jul 03, 2019 · David Crystal's Take "In grammar, [defective is] a traditional description of words which do not display all the rules of the class to which they belong.The English modal verbs, for example, are defective in that they do not permit the usual range of verb forms, such as an infinitive or participle forms (*to may, *shalling, etc.).
- Richard Nordquist
- English And Rhetoric Professor
Entries with "defective verb" may: …or remark.Prior: "How old may Phillis be, you ask." Usage May is now a defective verb.It has no infinitive, no past participle, and no future tense.
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Aug 01, 2016 · Those are verbs which do not have all forms required to create sentences in different tenses. See explanation for examples. Some English verbs are missing forms used to create sentences in diifferent tenses. For example: the verb can is such a verb because although it has got Past Simple form could, it does not have Past Participle form used to create Perfect tenses. If you want to create ...
Examples of Compound Verbs Compound verbs come in one of three forms. (Form 1) A Phrasal Verb (A Type of Compound Verb) A phrasal verb is a multi-word verb made up of a main verb and at least one preposition or a particle that changes the meaning of the verb from the original verb.
In Arabic, defective verbs are called أفعال جامدة (lit., solid verbs). These verbs do not change tense, nor do they form related nouns. A famous example is the verb ليس laysa, which translates as it is not, although it is not the only sister of Kaana which exhibits this property: some Arabic grammaticians argue that دام "daama" (when one of the sisters) is also completely defective; those who refute this claim still consider it partially defective. Some other partially defective verbs are "fati'a" and "zaala," which have neither an imperative form nor an infinitive form when sisters of Kaana.
The most commonly recognized defective verbs in English are auxiliary verbs — the class of preterite-present verbs — can/could, may/might, shall/should, must, ought to, and will/would (which was not historically in Old English a preterite-present but has joined the class in modern English). Though these verbs were not originally defective, in most varieties of English today, they occur only in a modal auxiliarysense. However, unlike normal auxiliary verbs, they are not regularly conjugated in the infinitive mood. Therefore, these defective auxiliaries do not accept each other as objects. Additionally, they do not regularly appear as participles. The defective form "ought to" is used with a "bare infinitive" verb, since the "to" goes with "ought," and not with the verb. For example, can lacks an infinitive, future tense, participle, imperative, and gerund. The missing parts of speech, however, can be expressed by using the appropriate forms of to be plus able to. So, while I could do...
falloir ("to be necessary", only the third-person forms with il exist; the present indicative conjugation (il faut) is certainly the most often used form of a defective verb in French), braire ("to bray", infinitive, present participle and third-person forms only), frire ("to fry", lacks non-compound past forms; speakers paraphrase with equivalent forms of faire frire), clore("to conclude", lacks an imperfect conjugation, as well as first and second person plural present indicative conjugations), and impersonal weather and similar verbs as in English.
widać ("it is evident"), słychać("it is audible") (the only form of these verbs that exists is the infinitive)
A large number of Portuguese verbs are defective in person, i.e., they lack the proper form for one of the pronouns in some tense. The verb colorir ("to color") has no first-person singular in the present (thus requiring a paraphrase, like estou colorindo ("I am coloring") or the use of another verb of similar meaning, like pintar("to paint").
The verb победить ("to win") does not have a future form of the first person singular, so the phrase "I will win" cannot be translated into Russian directly word for word.
The auxiliary måste (must) lacks the infinitive, except in Swedish dialects spoken in Finland. Also, this verb is unique in having identical present and past tense forms. The verb stinga (sting) lacks the past tense, but the synonym sticka can be used in stead. The verb spritta(startle) lacks a supine form.
말다 (to stop or desist) may only be used in the imperative form, after an 'action verb + 지' construction. Within this scope, however it can conjugate for different levels of politeness; e.g. 하지마! (Stop that!); 하지마십시오('Please, don't do that').
Arsa (says/said), can only be used in past or present tenses. Copula islacks a future tense, imperative mood and conditional mood.
Welsh has a handful of defective verbs, a number of which are archaic or literary. Some of the more common ones in everyday use include dylwn (I should/ought) with only imperfect and pluperfect, meddaf (I say) in the present and imperfect and geni (to be born) which has a verb-noun and impersonal forms, e.g. Ganwyd hi(She was born, literally "one bore her").
A compound verb is not limited to just one type, but rather four. Learn about the different forms of compound verbs and become a grammar pro.