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    Keywords: knowledge, truth, pseudo-concept, definition, correspondence theory, intuition. I. Introduction In his article, Gettier discusses the classical analysis of knowledge as having the general form: “S knows that P IFF (i.e. if and only if) (i) P is true, (ii) S believes that P, and (iii) S is justified in believing that P.” (Gettier 1963)

  2. Analytic–synthetic distinction - Wikipedia › wiki › Analytic–synthetic

    Analytic truth defined as a true statement derivable from a tautology by putting synonyms for synonyms is near Kant's account of analytic truth as a truth whose negation is a contradiction. Analytic truth defined as a truth confirmed no matter what, however, is closer to one of the traditional accounts of a priori .

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  4. The Nature of Truth and the Different Types of Truth - Fact ... › the-nature-of-truth-and-the-different-types
    • How to Understand Truth – A Theory and A Definition of Truth and Related Terms
    • Exploring The Nature of Truth and Types of Truth
    • The Different Types of Truths
    • An Introduction to The Nature of Ontological and Epistemological Truth
    • The Nature of Truth and A Discussion on Some Related Rule-Sets
    • The Tools of The Truth Finder
    • The Methods For Conveying Information: Journalism vs. Opinion vs. Propaganda
    • Some Metaphysics of Truth
    • Things That Are True About The Nature of Truth

    We explore the nature of truth, the different types of truth, and the different types of entities who report truth to better understand the nature of information. Below we look at truth from a number of different perspectives, offering insight into “what we can know” and “how we can know it” as it pertains to Truth in its different forms.

    With the introduction covered, below will discuss: 1. The “types of truth,” include types of real and counterfeit information ranging from: facts, to myths, to factoids, to lies, to truths, to half-truths, to statistics, to theories, and more. 2. The nature of truth by describing rulesets like the law of thoughtand the nature of theories and facts. 3. Terms, logic, and reason and their application in deductive arguments (with their definite truth-values) and in inductive arguments (where we argue for the probability of something). 4. The different types of entities who convey truth, including journalists, philosophers, scientists, propagandists, and everything in between. 5. The mediums of truth and the tools of the truth teller(or propagandist), including everything from pure propaganda to upstanding peer-reviewed journals. By understanding the nature of truth, the types of truth, the purveyors of truth, and their technologies we can better understand the information that shapes ou...

    Below is a non-exhaustive list of different types of truth (and non-truths), the goal is to introduce you to different types of information. 1. In a strict sense, truth is something that is provable, objective, and not “opinion.” It is verified not to be false in any objective way, based on logic, reason, and/or empirical evidence (what is proper differs by what we are discussing; for example a mathematic truth can be proved with reason, where a truth of physics likely requires empirical testing). 2. Of the truths, the empirical and logical truths are the most concrete (we can sense, measure, and confirm their properties with certainty). Meanwhile the ethical and metaphysical truths tend to contain a degree of uncertainty (they exist partly or wholly in the “world of ideas” or in our own internal experience). For example, the laws of motion are solid logical and empirical truths, while the idea that all have “a right to life, liberty, and happiness” are a less tangible ethical and m...

    Above we covered the different types of truth, but if we want to better understand the nature of truth we have to look at the concept of truth from a deeper and more fundamental ontological and epistemological level, like this: 1. From an ontological perspective that considers the nature of reality itself, speaking loosely, truth is “that which is in reality,” and it is not “that which is not in reality.” 2. When we conceptualize an empirical observation (pertaining to the internal or external physical world) or rational idea (pertaining to logical and metaphysical thoughts), we have to account for our ability to perceive correctly (our senses could be tricking us, or our ideas could be wrong; or if we are using a measuring device, it could be calibrated incorrectly, or perhaps our test wasn’t poorly designed, etc). In this respect, our perception can color truth before we even conceptualize a concept and communicate it using language. 3. On an ontological level, truth speaks to “th...

    To help work with the above, it helps to know a few rules of what we can know and how we can know it (epistemology). We can generally state the following rules pertaining to truth: TIP: These are some important rules/theories gleaned from different mathematicians and philosophers, expressed as well as we can express them. This is not however an exhaustive or perfect list. 1. The general rules behind the nature of what we can know (or at least deductive logic) are reducible to a few axioms, these are the Classical Three Fundamental Laws of Thought. The next three rules below are The Laws of Thought. 2. The Law of Identity: Whatever is, is; Every A is A. 3. The Law of Contradiction: Nothing can both be and not be; Nothing can be A and not A. 4. The Law of Excluded Middles: Everything must either be or not be; Everything is either A or not A. 5. The laws of thought are very useful, but they alone don’t comprise a perfect epistemological theory. We also need to consider the following po...

    The nature and types of truth are only one part of the story, we also need to consider the tools one uses to find truths, the art of rhetoric, and the methods for conveying information. A truth teller should always seek to verify their data, sometimes that means citations, sometimes that means experiment, sometimes that means using logic and reason, sometimes that means being skeptical, sometimes it means seeking testimony, and sometimes that means using a mix of all these things. Let’s look at some tools of the truth finder (the tools of a lover of wisdom; natural or moral). Conceptualization, logic, and reason. The art of thought can be said to be of three types, with each type increasing in complexity. It works like this: 1. There are termsor concepts; like Socrates, men, or mortality. 2. There are logicaljudgements; like Socrates is a man, and all men are mortal. 3. Then there is reasonedinferences; like since Socrates is a man and since all men are mortal, therefore Socrates is...

    Not only do different types of truth exist, but different types of “reporters, or purveyors, of truth” exist and different “methods for conveying information” do too. A “good” journalist seeks to report “the best obtainable version of the truth,” fact-checked and verified, framed in an honest way, delivered ideally with both sides of the argument presented and free from emotion. Real journalismisn’t opinion and emotion, but it can exist alongside opinion and emotion if presented in an honest way. When presenting real information it is important to present it with citations and counterarguments, this can look like a military field manual (with no none sense), a peer reviewed journal, or a well written and researched bit of journalism. There is a range of ways to present this highest quality of information, but the general goal is to convey true, good, and honest information in true and honest context. Opinionis, as above, a thing that ranges from justified to unjustified belief, it i...

    Below are a few key points that, while not provable via fact (they are theory, opinion, and metaphysics), should be none-the-less insightful: 1. The Arete of Information (“information of the highest order”): One could say, a journalist who presents facts and theories, noting differing opinions, and shedding light on confusion and propaganda with the purpose of informing is “of the higher order.” A Journalist, and by a wider definition, teacher, scientist, economist, PR person, etc, in their best light, is the arete of information giver, just as truth, theory, and pure information when presented in the correct way, is the arete of information. Generally, no state or group can define better rules for truth and truth proveyors than nature has already assigned herself. Truth isn’t purely empirical, but enough of its nature is empirical and mathematical to weed out most grey areas. 2. Information “of the lowest order”: In the modern era, everyone has a pen and a soapbox. Back in the earl...

    Truth can be subjective or objective, only objective truths meet a sound scientific or mathematic definition of truth, but philosophy considers arguments that use reason and empirical evidenceto fi...
    Even though everything is true or not true, we cannot prove everything true that is trueand we cannot prove everything false that is false.
    Due to the way truth works, a useful tool of humankind is theories (ideally rooted in the scientific method).
  5. There is No Such Thing as Objective Truth - Fact or Myth? › there-is-no-such-thing-as-objective-truth

    Jul 05, 2017 · Knowledge based on individual biases, perspective, interpretations, feelings, imaginings, and/or opinions. True for a specific individual; truth based on perspective. Ex. “The water feels cold to me.” This is a type of truth that is subjective, but has an aboslute truth value to the observer that relates back to their perception of absolute truth.

  6. One way we talk about the meaning of synthetic sentences is by evaluating the conditions under which they would be true or false--we call these truth conditions. Two or more synthetic sentences would be synonymous if they were true under all the same conditions and false under all the same conditions.

  7. Truth, Justice, and Public Good: Simone Weil ... - Brain Pickings › 2018/10/31 › simone-weil

    Oct 31, 2018 · Mendacity, error (the two words are synonymous), are the thoughts of those who do not desire truth, or those who desire truth plus something else. For instance, they desire truth, but they also desire conformity with such or such received ideas. Yet how can we desire truth if we have no prior knowledge of it? This is the mystery of all mysteries.

  8. Philosophy of Knowledge - The Statesman › opinion › philosophy-of

    Jan 18, 2019 · Knowledge is inherent.” To know is to unveil or discover. The discovery of the Law of Gravitation by Newton is one of its major examples. When Newton saw an apple falling from a tree he asked ...

  9. Is truth a matter of perception? - Quora › Is-truth-a-matter-of-perception

    observable and a secondary GIVER of truth. It is but a paper-tiger. “INFORMATION”, “Property”, “Truth” and “existence”. The symbols mean the same: They are synonymous with “opinion”. “INFORMATION”, “Property”, “Truth” and “existence” is, as such, it-self, on its own, an ”opinion”.

  10. Defining Post-truth: Structures, Agents, and Styles › 2018/10/22 › defining-post-truth

    Oct 22, 2018 · The type of mendacity linked to post-truth is closely related to what Harry Frankfurt famously described as ‘bullshit’. Yet, I argue, the two are not exactly synonymous. Both forms of speech are indifferent towards the truth-value of statements, which distinguishes them from traditional lies.

  11. "Fact or Opinion?": A False Dichotomy ~ The Imaginative ... › 2018 › 07

    Jul 25, 2018 · A result of the fact-or-opinion training is that two categories are created in the mind of the student: things that are true, and things that are neither true nor false. Essentially, the fact-or-opinion curriculum is first-rate training for thinking relativistically... (essay by Matthew D'Antuono)

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