In the turmoil of the First World War, Poles managed to regain independence and then to expand their territory in a series of local wars and uprisings; only to be occupied again during the next world war. The second half of the 20th century was more peaceful, but still tense, as Poland was involved in the Cold War on the Soviet side.
The Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic War, or Great War, occurred between 1409 and 1411 between the Teutonic Knights and the allied Kingdom of Poland and Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Inspired by the local Samogitian uprising , the war began by Teutonic invasion of Poland in August 1409.
After World War I, in 1918, Poland regained independence, and the Greater Poland Uprising broke out, which aim was to reintegrate the region with Poland. Local Poles were persecuted for their pro-Polish stance by the Germans, who also held Polish insurgents in the local prison.
- Piast Poland
- Jagiellon Poland
- Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
- 19th Century and World War I
- Modern History
- See Also
During the Middle Ages, Poland sought to incorporate other Slavic peoples under the rule of the Polan dukes, such as Mieszko I, Boleslaw I Chrobry and their descendants, and then defend the lands acquired in the west from the Holy Roman Empire. In the east and south it struggled with Ruthenia, Bohemia and Hungary, and Tatar raiders. In the north-east, it encountered intermittent Lithuanian and Prussianraids.
For much of its early history as a Christian state, Poland had to contend with Pomeranians, Prussians, Lithuanians and other Baltic peoples in continuous border wars without clear results or end in sight. After the Teutonic Order conquered and assimilated the Prussians, it began incursions into both Polish and Lithuanian territories. This represented a far greater threat to both Poland and Lithuania, and the two countries united in a defensive alliance by the crowning of the Lithuanian Duke Jogaila as King of Poland (as Władysław II) which led to a major confrontation at the Battle of Grunwald in 1410 and subsequent wars until 1525, when the Order became a vassal to the Polish Crown.
The 17th century saw fierce rivalry between the then major Eastern European powers – Sweden, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Ottoman Empire. At its heyday, the Commonwealth comprised the territories of present-day Poland, and large parts of Ukraine, Belarus, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, and Russia, and represented a major European power. However, by the end of the 18th century a series of internal conflicts and wars with foreign enemies led to the dissolution of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and the partitioning of most of its dependent territories among other European powers.During the 18th century, European powers (most frequently consisting of Russia, Sweden, Prussia and Saxony) fought several wars for the control of the territories of the former Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. At the end of the 18th century, some Poles attempted to defend Poland from growing foreign influence in the country's internal affairs. These late attempts to preserve independence eventuall...
Poles unsuccessfully struggled to win back their independence throughout the 19th century. At first, they put their hopes in Napoleon. Later, they tried to ignite national uprisings every now and then – most of them bloodily repressed.
In the turmoil of the First World War, Poles managed to regain independence and then to expand their territory in a series of local wars and uprisings; only to be occupied again during the next world war. The second half of the 20th century was more peaceful, but still tense, as Poland was involved in the Cold War on the Soviet side. Later, at the beginning of the 21st century Poland is involved in the War against Islamic terrorism on the NATOside.Gąsowski, Tomasz (1999). Bitwy polskie: leksykon. Kraków: Społeczny Instytut Wydawniczy Znak. ISBN 83-7006-787-5.Kozłowski, Eligiusz; Wrzosek, Mieczysław (1984). Historia oręża polskiego 1795–1939. Warszawa: Wiedza Powszechna. ISBN 83-214-0339-5.Lawson, M. K. (2004). Cnut – England's Viking King (2nd ed.). Stroud: Tempus. ISBN 0-7524-2964-7.Nowak, Tadeusz M.; Wimmer, Jan (1981). Historia oręża polskiego 963–1795. Warszawa: Wiedza Powszechna. ISBN 83-214-0133-3.
Poland, or at least its nucleus, was ruled at various times either by dukes (the 10th-14th century) or by kings (the 11th-18th century). The longest-reigning dynasties were the Piasts (ca. 960 – 1370) and Jagiellons (1386–1572). Intervening and subsequent monarchs were often rulers of foreign countries or princes recruited from foreign dynasties. During the latter period a tradition of ...
Jadwiga Długoborska (1899–1944), teacher, social and charity worker Jan Dołęga-Zakrzewski (1866-1936), politician, surveyor, publicist, mayor of Ostrów Mazowiecka (1930-1933) Krystyna Sienkiewicz (1934–2017), actress and singer
2 Semi-legendary rulers of the western Polans (Greater Poland) 3 Monarchs of Poland; 4 Kings of Poland and Grand Dukes of Lithuania. 4.1 Jagiellon Dynasty; 5 Kings of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth; 6 Claim made by foreign states after Partitions of Poland. 6.1 Kings and Tsars of the Kingdom of Poland; 6.2 Kings and Queens of Galicia and ...
May 09, 2014 · Jadwiga Piłsudska married a Polish Navy officer Andrzej Jaraczewski and remained on emigration in Britain (their daughter Joanna married the "Solidarity" activist J.Onyszkiewicz). When USSR fell and Poland regained independence, Jadwiga and her husband returned home after 45 years.
Zuzanna Ginczanka, pen name of Sara Ginzburg (March 22, 1917 – January 1945) was a Polish-Jewish poet of the interwar period.Although she published only a single collection of poetry in her lifetime, the book O centaurach (On Centaurs, 1936) created a sensation in Poland's literary circles.
The purpose of this project is to honour the brave Kaszubian men and women during World War 2. They are modern heroes and heroines. The project will focus on Kaszubians who were executed, interned and otherwise detained by the Nazis and Russians during the years 1939 to 1945.