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  1. Jerusalem liegt 60 km östlich von Tel Aviv und dem Mittelmeer. Im Osten der Stadt, etwa 35 km entfernt, liegt das Tote Meer. Weitere Städte und Siedlungen in der näheren Umgebung sind Bethlehem und Bait Dschala im Süden, Abu Dis und Maʿale Adummim im Osten, sowie Ramallah und Givʿat Seev im Norden.

    • .mw-parser-output .Hebr{font-size:115%}ירושלים
    • 125,2 km²
  2. Jérusalem Jérusalem ist Giuseppe Verdis erste französische Grand opéra. Sie entstand als Umarbeitung der Oper I Lombardi alla prima crociata und besteht wie das Original aus vier Akten. Die Uraufführung in französischer Sprache fand am 26. November 1847 an der Académie Royale de Musique in Paris statt. [1]

    • Oper in vier Akten
    • Jérusalem
  3. › wiki › JerusalemJerusalem - Wikipedia

    Jerusalem (/ dʒ ə ˈ r uː s əl ə m /; Hebrew: יְרוּשָׁלַיִם Yerushaláyim; Arabic: القُدس al-Quds) is a city in Western Asia.Situated on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea, it is one of the oldest cities in the world and is considered to be a holy city for the three major Abrahamic religions: Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.

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    What are facts about Jerusalem?

    What is the holiest Jewish site in Jerusalem?

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    What was Jerusalem like in the time of Jesus?

    • Ancient Period
    • Classical Antiquity
    • Early Muslim Period
    • Crusader/Ayyubid Period
    • Mamluk Period
    • Ottoman Period
    • Modern Period
    • See Also
    • Further Reading
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    Proto-Canaanite period

    Archaeological evidence suggests that the first settlement was established near Gihon Spring between 4500 and 3500 BCE. The first known mention of the city was in c. 2000 BCE in the Middle Kingdom Egyptian Execration Texts in which the city was recorded as Rusalimum. The root S-L-M in the name is thought to refer to either "peace" (compare with modern Salam or Shalom in modern Arabic and Hebrew) or Shalim, the god of dusk in the Canaanite religion.

    Canaanite and New Kingdom Egyptian period

    Archaeological evidence suggests that by the 17th century BCE, the Canaanites had built massive walls (4 and 5 ton boulders, 26 feet high) on the eastern side of Jerusalem to protect their ancient water system.[better source needed] By c. 1550–1400 BCE, Jerusalem had become a vassal to Egypt after the Egyptian New Kingdom under Ahmose I and Thutmose I had reunited Egypt and expanded into the Levant. The Amarna letters contain correspondence from Abdi-Heba, headman of Urusalim and his suzerain...

    Independent Israel and Judah (House of David) period

    According to the Bible, the Israelite history of the city began in c. 1000 BCE, with King David's sack of Jerusalem, following which Jerusalem became the City of David and capital of the United Kingdom of Israel. According to the Books of Samuel, the Jebusites managed to resist attempts by the Israelites to capture the city, and by the time of King David were mocking such attempts, claiming that even the blind and lame could defeat the Israelite army. Nevertheless, the masoretic text for the...

    Roman Jerusalem

    In 37 BCE, Herod the Great captured Jerusalem after a forty-day siege, ending Hasmonean rule. Herod ruled the Province of Judea as a client-king of the Romans, rebuilt the Second Temple, upgraded the surrounding complex, and expanded the minting of coins to many denominations. Pliny the Elder, writing of Herod's achievements, called Jerusalem "the most famous by far of the Eastern cities and not only the cities of Judea." The Talmud comments that "He who has not seen the Temple of Herod has n...

    Roman Aelia Capitolina

    What is today known as the "Old City" was laid out by the Roman Emperor Hadrian in the 2nd century, when he began to rebuild Jerusalem as a pagan city. In 130, Hadrian visited the ruins of Jerusalem remaining after the First Jewish-Roman War of 66–73. He rebuilt the city, renaming it Aelia Capitolina in 135 CE. Hadrian placed the city's main Roman Forum at the junction of the main Cardo and Decumanus, now the location of the (smaller) Muristan. Hadrian built a large temple to Jupiter Capitoli...

    Early Byzantine period

    The Emperor Constantine, however, rebuilt Jerusalem as a Christian center of worship, building the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in 335. Jerusalem had received special recognition in Canon VII of the First Council of Nicaea in 325. Constantine's mother, Helena, made a pilgrimage to the city and claimed to have recovered the cross of Christ. Jews were still banned from the city throughout the remainder of its time as a Roman province, except during a brief period of Persian rulefrom 614 to 629.

    Rashidun, Umayyad and Abbasid Caliphates

    Although the Qur'an does not mention the name "Jerusalem", the hadith assert that it was from Jerusalem that Muhammad ascended to heaven in the Night Journey, or Isra and Miraj.[citation needed] The city was one of the Arab Caliphate's first conquests in 638 CE; according to Arab historians of the time, the Rashidun Caliph Umar ibn al-Khattab personally went to the city to receive its submission, cleaning out and praying at the Temple Mount in the process. Sixty years later the Dome of the Ro...

    Fatimid period

    The early Arab period was also one of religious tolerance.[citation needed] However, in the early 11th century, the Egyptian Fatimid Caliph Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah ordered the destruction of all churches. In 1033, there was another earthquake, severely damaging the Al-Aqsa Mosque. The Fatimid caliph Ali az-Zahir rebuilt and completely renovated the mosque between 1034 and 1036. The number of naves was drastically reduced from fifteen to seven. Az-Zahir built the four arcades of the central hall...

    Seljuk period

    Under Az-Zahir's successor al-Mustansir Billah, the Fatimid Caliphate entered a period of instability and decline, as factions fought for power in Cairo. In 1071, Jerusalem was captured by the Turkish warlord Atsiz ibn Uvaq, who seized most of Syria and Palestine as part of the expansion of the Seljuk Turksthroughout the Middle East. As the Turks were staunch Sunnis, they were opposed not only to the Fatimids, but also to the numerous Shia Muslims, who saw themselves removed from dominance af...

    The time span consisting of the 12th and 13th centuries is sometimes referred to as the medieval period, or the Middle Ages, in the history of Jerusalem.

    In 1250 a crisis within the Ayyubid state led to the rise of the Mamluks to power and a transition to the Mamluk Sultanate, which is divided between the Bahri and Burji periods. The Ayyubids tried to hold on to power in Syria, but the Mongol invasion of 1260 put an end to this. A Mamluk army defeated the Mongol incursion and in the aftermath Baybar...

    Early Ottoman period

    In 1516, Jerusalem was taken over by the Ottoman Empire along with all of Greater Syria and enjoyed a period of renewal and peace under Suleiman the Magnificent, including the construction of the walls, which define until today what is now known as the Old City of Jerusalem. The outline of the walls largely follows that of different older fortifications. The rule of Suleiman and subsequent Ottoman Sultans brought an age of "religious peace"; Jew, Christian and Muslim enjoyed freedom of religi...

    Late Ottoman period

    In the mid-19th century, with the decline of the Ottoman Empire, the city was a backwater, with a population that did not exceed 8,000. Nevertheless, it was, even then, an extremely heterogeneous city because of its significance to Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. The population was divided into four major communities – Jewish, Christian, Muslim, and Armenian – and the first three of these could be further divided into countless subgroups, based on precise religious affiliation or country of...

    British Mandate period

    The British were victorious over the Ottomans in the Middle East during World War I and victory in Palestine was a step towards dismemberment of that empire. General Sir Edmund Allenby, commander-in-chief of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force, entered Jerusalem on foot out of respect for the Holy City, on 11 December 1917. By the time General Allenby took Jerusalem from the Ottomans in 1917, the new city was a patchwork of neighborhoods and communities, each with a distinct ethnic character. Th...

    Division between Jordan and Israel

    The United Nations proposed, in its 1947 plan for the partition of Palestine, for Jerusalem to be a city under international administration. The city was to be completely surrounded by the Arab state, with only a highway to connect international Jerusalem to the Jewish state. Following the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, Jerusalem was divided. The Western half of the New City became part of the newly formed state of Israel, while the eastern half, along with the Old City, was occupied by Jordan.Accord...

    Avci, Yasemin, Vincent Lemire, and Falestin Naili. "Publishing Jerusalem's ottoman municipal archives (1892-1917): a turning point for the city's historiography." Jerusalem Quarterly 60 (2014): 110...
    Emerson, Charles. 1913: In Search of the World Before the Great War(2013) compares Jerusalem to 20 major world cities; pp 325–46.
    Lemire, Vincent. Jerusalem 1900: The Holy City in the Age of Possibilities(U of Chicago Press, 2017).
    Mazza, Roberto. Jerusalem from the Ottomans to the British( 2009)
  5. Jerusalem is a very old city. It has great importance for three religions: Judaism, Christianity and Islam. The Bible says King David, the second king of Israel, took this city from pagans and settled his palace there. King Solomon, David's son and the next king, built the Temple of Solomon in Jerusalem. Later, as capital of Judah, Jerusalem ...

    • 3000-2800 BCE
    • Jerusalem
  6. › wiki › JérusalemJérusalem - Wikipedia

    26 November 1847. ( 1847-11-26) Salle Le Peletier (The Paris Opéra) Jérusalem is a grand opera in four acts by Giuseppe Verdi. The libretto was to be an adaptation and partial translation of the composer's original 1843 Italian opera, I Lombardi alla prima crociata.

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