John Forbes Nash Jr. (June 13, 1928 – May 23, 2015) was an American mathematician who made fundamental contributions to game theory, differential geometry, and the study of partial differential equations. Nash's work has provided insight into the factors that govern chance and decision-making inside complex systems found in everyday life.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Forbes_Nash_Jr.
John Forbes Nash Jr. (June 13, 1928 – May 23, 2015) was an American mathematician who made fundamental contributions to game theory, differential geometry, and the study of partial differential equations. Nash's work has provided insight into the factors that govern chance and decision-making inside complex systems found in everyday life.
- A Conversation with John Nashyoutube.com
- Mathematician John Nash, Wife Killed In NJ Turnpike Crashyoutube.com
- Dr. John Nash on his life before and after the Nobel Prizeyoutube.com
- The True Story Behind 'A Beautiful Mind': A Biography of John Nash (1999)youtube.com
John Nash, in full John Forbes Nash, Jr., (born June 13, 1928, Bluefield, West Virginia, U.S.—died May 23, 2015, near Monroe Township, New Jersey), American mathematician who was awarded the 1994 Nobel Prize for Economics for his landmark work, first begun in the 1950s, on the mathematics of game theory.
John F. Nash Jr. Biographical My beginning as a legally recognized individual occurred on June 13, 1928 in Bluefield, West Virginia, in the Bluefield Sanitarium, a hospital that no longer exists. Of course I can’t consciously remember anything from the first two or three years of my life after birth.
John Forbes Nash Jr was a mathematician from the United States, recognized for his specialty and contributions in game theory, differential geometry and partial differential equations, which earned him a Nobel Prize in Economics.
- Childhood and Early Education
- Bachelor and Master Studies at The Carnegie Institute of Technology
- Graduate Studies at Princeton
- Ph.D Degree
- Other Major Publications by Nash Related to Game Theory and Nash Equilibrium
- Other Notable Work in Mathematics
- Hilbert’s Nineteenth Problem
- Mental Health
- Later Career
John Forbes Nash Jr. was born on 13 June, 1928, in Bluefield (37°15′44″N 81°13′7″W), West Virginia. He was baptised in the Episcopal Church. Bluefield is located at in the Appalachian Mountains of West Virginia – across the state border from Bluefield, Virginia – and John Forbes Nash Sr. worked as an electrical engineer for the Appalachian Electric Power Company. His wife, Margaret Virginia (née Martin), had been a schoolteacher before she married. On 16 November, 1930, a daughter was born to the family and named Martha. Heavily dependant on coal mining, the Great Depression hit Bluefields particularly hard, and coal production here wasn’t revived until the outbreak of World War II. During the depression era, the government of Bluefields nearly went bankrupt, and a series of devastating fires destroyed large parts of the downtown area.
Nash earned a full benefit George Westinghouse Scholarship that allowed him to attend Carnegie Institute of Technology in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. (This institute eventually became the Carnegie Mellon University.) At first, he majored in chemical engineering, before changing to a chemistry major. One of his teachers, the renowned Irish mathematician and physicist John Linghton Synge, noticed Nash’s exceptional talent for mathematics and convinced him to switch major again; this time to mathematics. In 1948, the 19-year-old Nash graduated with both a B.S and M.S. in mathematics. His former professor Richard James Duffin wrote him a letter of recommendation where he outright called him “a mathematical genius”.
Accepted to graduate school at both Princeton University and Harvard University, Nash picked Princeton after Solomon Lefschetz, chairman of the mathematics department at Princeton, had convinced him that Princeton valued him more, and offered him the John S. Kennedy fellowship. Nash also preferred Princeton’s location; going to Harvard would have meant being even farther away from his family in West Virginia. Nash accepted the offer from Princeton and moved there to pursue his graduate studies in mathematics. At was during his time in graduate school that he developed the game theory solution concept that we today know as the Nash equilibrium.
In 1950, Nash earned his Ph. D. degree with a 28-page dissertation on non-cooperative games. It is on this dissertation that we find the definition and properties of the Nash equilibrium. Nash’s supervisor for the dissertation was Canadian mathematician Albert W. Tucker.Nash, John Forbes (1950). “Equilibrium Points in N-person Games”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 36(1): 48–49. doi:10.1073/pnas.36.1.48. MR 0031701...Nash, John Forbes (1950). “The Bargaining Problem”. Econometrica. 18(2): 155–62. doi:10.2307/1907266. JSTOR 1907266. MR 0035977.Nash, John Forbes (1951). “Non-cooperative Games”. Annals of Mathematics. 54(2): 286–95. doi:10.2307/1969529. JSTOR 1969529. MR 0043432.Nash, John Forbes (1953). “Two-person Cooperative Games”. Econometrica. 21(1): 128–40. doi:10.2307/1906951. MR 0053471.
In addition to his work with game theory, Nash accomplished groundbreaking work in the field of real algebraic geometry. He did for instance create the Nash embedding theorem, and made notable contributions to the theory of nonlinear parabolic partial differential equations and to singularity theory. For more information about Nash embedding theorem: Nash, John Forbes (1952). “Real algebraic manifolds”. Annals of Mathematics. 56 (3): 405–21. doi:10.2307/1969649. JSTOR 1969649. MR 0050928. See “Proc. Internat. Congr. Math”. AMS. 1952: 516–17.
Nash and Italian mathematician Ernio de Giorgi both worked out proofs for Hilbert’s nineteenth problem at almost the same time, but the Italian published first – which was a great disappointment for Nash. Nash and Giorgi’s proofs are not identical; they each take their own route to reach a solution. Hilbert’s nineteenth problem is on of 23 problems compiled by German mathematician David Hillbert in 1900. The problems were all unsolved back then, and many of them became very influential for 20th century mathematicians. The nineteenth problem asks whether the solutions of regular problems in the calculus of variations are always analytic.
In 2011, the National Security Agency (NSA) declassified letters written by Nash in the 1950s. The content of these letters show that Nash predicted many concepts of today’s cryptography that are based on computational hardness. Among other things, the letters contain Nash’s suggestions for a new type of encryption-decryption machine.
Nash was diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia in 1959. For more information, please visit the article John Forbes Nash Jr. mental health.
Nash later career mostly consisted of work in advanced game theory, such as partial agency problems. One field of interest for Nash was the role of money in society, seen from a game theory perspective. He was a critic of lobby groups that promotes quasi-doctrines based on Keynesian economics that advocate manipulative short-term inflation and debt tactics that are known to cause a long-term undermining of currencies. One of Nash’s suggestions was the creation of a industrial consumption price index system that would serve to create more “ideal money” that people could trust, as opposed to unstable “bad money”.
John Forbes Nash Jr. (1928-2015) was an American mathematician and Nobel Prize Laureate, and he is the subject of Sylvia Nasar ’s biography A Beautiful Mind.
John F. Nash, Jr. 1928 - 2015 John Nash Jr., a legendary fixture of Princeton University’s Department of Mathematics renowned for his breakthrough work in mathematics and game theory as well as for his struggle with mental illness, died with his wife, Alicia, in an automobile accident May 23 in Monroe Township, New Jersey.
May 23, 2015 · The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1994 was awarded jointly to John C. Harsanyi, John F. Nash Jr. and Reinhard Selten "for their pioneering analysis of equilibria in the theory of non-cooperative games".
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John Forbes Nash Junior was born in the city of Bluefield, West Virginia, USA on June 13th 1928, the eldest child of John Forbes Nash Senior, an electrical engineer with the local power company and Margaret Virginia Nash (nee Martin).