- John Frederick I ( German: Johann Friedrich I; 30 June 1503 in Torgau – 3 March 1554 in Weimar ), called the Magnanimous, was the Elector of Saxony (1532-1547) and head of the Schmalkaldic League . John Frederick was the eldest son of Elector John by his first wife, Sophie of Mecklenburg-Schwerin.
- Early Years
- Elector of Saxony
- Final Days
- Marriage and Family
John Frederick was the eldest son of Elector John by his first wife, Sophie of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. His mother died fourteen days after his birth, on 12 July 1503. He received his education from George Spalatin, whom he highly esteemed during his whole life. Spalatin was Martin Luther's friend and advisor and thus, through Spalatin's schooling, John developed a devotion to the teachings of Martin Luther. His knowledge of history was comprehensive, and his library, which extended over all sciences, was one of the largest in Germany. He cultivated a personal relationship with Martin Luther, beginning to correspond with him in the days when the bull of excommunication was hurled against the Reformer, and showing himself a convinced adherent of Luther. With vivid interest he observed the development of the reformatory movement. He eagerly read Luther's writings, urged the printing of the first complete (Wittenberg) edition of his works, and in the latter years of his life promoted the...
In 1532, John Frederick succeeded his father as elector. In the beginning he reigned with his half-brother, John Ernest, but in 1542 became sole ruler. Chancellor Brück, who for years had guided the foreign relations of the country with ability and prudence, remained also his councilor, but his open and impulsive nature often led him to disregard the propositions of his more experienced adviser, so that the country was in frequent danger, especially as John Frederick was not a far-sighted politician. He consolidated the Lutheran State Church by the institution of an electoral consistory (1542) and renewed the church visitation. He took a firmer and more decided stand than his father in favor of the Schmalkaldic League, but on account of his strictly Lutheran convictions was involved in difficulties with the Landgrave of Hesse, who favored a union with the Swiss and Strasburg Evangelicals. He was averse to all propositions of Popes Clement VII and Paul III to support calling a Genera...
Emperor Charles V condemned him to death as a convicted rebel; but, not to lose time in the siege of Wittenberg, which was defended by Sybille, the wife of the elector, he did not execute the sentence and entered into negotiations. To protect and save his wife and sons, and to prevent Wittenberg from being destroyed, John Frederick conceded the Capitulation of Wittenberg, and, after having been compelled to resign the government of his country in favor of Maurice of Saxony, his condemnation was changed into imprisonment for life. He was never greater and more magnanimous than in the days of his captivity, as is evident from the correspondence with his children, his wife, and his councilors. Friends and foes were compelled to acknowledge his calm behavior, his unwavering faith, and his greatness under misfortune. He steadfastly refused to renounce the Protestant faith or to acknowledge the Augsburg Interim, declaring that by its acceptance he would commit "a sin agai...
The sudden attack upon the emperor by Elector Maurice made an end of John Frederick's imprisonment, and he was released on 1 September 1552. He firmly refused to bind himself to comply in matters of religion with the decisions of a future council or diet, declaring that he was resolved to adhere until his grave to the doctrine contained in the Augsburg Confession. His homeward journey was a triumphal march. He removed the seat of government to Weimar and reformed the conditions of his country, but died within two years. A special object of his care was the University of Jena, which he planned in place of Wittenberg, which he had lost (1547). He died in Weimar, Germany.
In Torgau on 9 February 1527 John Frederick married Sibylle of Cleves. They had four sons: 1. Johann Frederick II, Duke of Saxony(b. Torgau, 8 January 1529 – d. as imperial prisoner at Schloss Steyer, Upper Austria, 19 May 1595) 2. Johann Wilhelm, Duke of Saxe-Weimar(b. Torgau, 11 March 1530 – d. Weimar, 2 March 1573) 3. Johann Ernst (b. Weimar, 5 January 1535 – d. Weimar, 11 January 1535) 4. Johann Frederick III, Duke of Saxe-Gotha(1554–1565) (b. Torgau, 16 January 1538 – d. Jena, 31 October 1565). 1. Johann Frederick II, Duke of Saxony. 2. Johann Wilhelm, Duke of Saxe-Weimar. 3. Johann Frederick III at right.
Jump up ↑ Krömmelbein, Thomas (1987). "Veit Warbeck und die kurzweilige Historia von der schönen Magelone by Gmünder Volkshochschule". Zeitschrift für deutsches Altertum und deutsche Literatur. 116...
A Prince's Response to the Augsburg Interim, translated by Nathaniel J. Biebert (Red Brick Parsonage, 2015).
John Frederick I, Elector of Saxony(_de. Johann Friedrich I; b. Torgau, 30 June1503– d. Weimar, 3 March1554), called John the Magnanimous, was Elector of Saxonyand Head of the Protestant Confederation of Germany (the Schmalkaldic League), "Champion of the Reformation".
John Frederick I, Elector of Saxony, was an ardent Lutheran. Unlike others whose allegiances shifted during the religious wars that followed on the heels of the Reformation, he stayed true to his convictions. His cousin Maurice coveted his lands and the power he wielded as an elector (one of seven votes to elect future Holy Roman emperors).
In the almost 40 years that John governed as a duke over the Electorate of Saxony, he was often overshadowed by the person of his brother Frederick, who, as the eldest of the House of Wettin and the incumbent Elector, decisively determined the policy of Saxony. John is sometimes wrongly portrayed in the history and politics of the Electorate of Saxony as a background figure at the beginning of the Reformation, in contrast to his brother Frederick and his son and successor John Frederick [by ...
John Frederick was the eldest son of Elector John by his first wife, Sophie of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. His mother died fourteen days after his birth, on 12 July 1503. John Frederick received his education from George Spalatin, whom he highly esteemed during his whole life. Spalatin was Martin Luther's friend and advisor and thus, through Spalatin ...
Jun 26, 2021 · John Frederick, byname John Frederick the Magnanimous, German Johann Friedrich der Grossmütige, (born June 30, 1503, Torgau, Saxony—died March 3, 1554, Weimar, Saxe-Weimar), last elector of the Ernestine branch of the Saxon House of Wettin and leader of the Protestant Schmalkaldic League. His wars against the Holy Roman emperor Charles V and his fellow princes caused him to lose both the electoral rank and much of his territory.
Mar 03, 2017 · + John Frederick I, Elector of Saxony + 3 March AD 1554 John Frederick (Johann Friedrich), eldest son of John the Steadfast and nephew of Frederick the Wise of Saxony, was born in Torgau on 30 June 1503. He earned the appellation "John the Magnanimous" (der Grossmütige) because of his generous spirit and gracious bearing during trials.
John Frederick I, Elector Of Saxony Bio Details. Full name. John Frederick. Gender. Male. Age. 50. Date of birth. Tuesday 30 Jun 1503. Date of death: