"John George I (German: Johann Georg I.) (5 March 1585 – 8 October 1656) was Elector of Saxony from 1611 to 1656." - (en.wikipedia.org 07.06.2020) bnf gnd loc NDB/ADB viaf wikidata Wikipedia
John George I, Elector of Saxony (1585–1656), Elector of Saxony, 1611–1656; John George II, Elector of Saxony (1613–1680), Elector of Saxony, 1656–1680; John George II, Prince of Anhalt-Dessau (1627–1693), German prince of the House of Ascania and ruler of the principality of Anhalt-Dessau
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Vote for Your Favourite Famous People Born In Dresden. 1 Gerhard Richter. 0 0. ... 40 John George I, Elector of Saxony. 0 0. Listed In ... Actor. Birthdate: August 8 ...
The landscape dress of John George I, Elector of Saxony. The landscape dress of John George I, Elector of Saxony is a circular cloak from a bird’s eye view, on which the Saxon lands are shown mirror-inverted to the chest. The thought that a ruler carries the territory he rules over with him had something forceful, but also comical in my mind.
Augustus II (12 May 1670 – 1 February 1733), most commonly known as Augustus the Strong, was Elector of Saxony from 1694 as well as King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania in the years 1697–1706 and from 1709 until his death in 1733. He belonged to the Albertine line of the House of Wettin .
Jun 15, 2021 · March 5, 1585 – John George I, Elector of Saxony (d. 1656). Life path number 9 June 11, 1588 – George Wither, English poet (d. 1667). Life path number 3 August 28, 1592 – George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham, English courtier and politician, Lord Lieutenant of Buckinghamshire (d. 1628). Life path number 8
The Order was also awarded to Władysław IV Vasa, Elector John George of Saxony, and Frederick, Landgrave of Hesse-Eschwege. The members of The members of 1899 New Year Honours (1,093 words) [view diff] exact match in snippet view article find links to article
- Early Life
- Conversion to Catholicism
- King of Poland For The First Time
- King of Poland For The Second Time
- Illegitimate Issue
- Royal Titles
- Portraits by
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Augustus was born in Dresden on 12 May 1670, the younger son of the Elector Johann Georg III and Anne Sophie of Denmark. As the second son, Augustus had no expectation of inheriting the electorate, since his older brother, Johann Georg IV, assumed the post after the death of their father on 12 September 1691. Augustus was well educated, and spent some years in travel and in fighting against France. Augustus married Kristiane Eberhardine of Brandenburg-Bayreuth in Bayreuth on 20 January 1693. They had a son, Frederick Augustus II (1696–1763), who succeeded his father as Elector of Saxony and King of Polandas Augustus III. While in Venice during the carnival season, his older brother, the Elector Johann Georg IV, contracted smallpox from his mistress Magdalena Sibylla of Neidschutz. On 27 April 1694, Johann Georg died without legitimate issue and Augustus became Elector of Saxony, as Friedrich Augustus I.
To be eligible for election to the throne of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1697, Augustus had to convert to Roman Catholicism. The Saxon dukes had traditionally been called "champions of the Reformation". Saxony had been a stronghold of German Protestantism and Augustus' conversion was therefore considered shocking in Protestant Europe. Although the prince-elector guaranteed Saxony's religious status quo, Augustus' conversion alienated many of his Protestant subjects. As a result of the enormous expenditure of money used to bribe the Polish nobility and clergy, Augustus' contemporaries derisively referred to the Saxon duke's royal ambitions as his "Polish adventure". His church policy within the Holy Roman Empire followed orthodox Lutheranism and ran counter to his new-found religious and absolutist convictions. The Protestant princes of the empire and the two remaining Protestant electors (of Hanover and Prussia) were anxious to keep Saxony well-integrated in their camp. Ac...
Following the death of Polish King John III Sobieski and having converted to Catholicism, Augustus won election as King of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1697 with the backing of Imperial Russia and Austria, which financed him through the banker Berend Lehmann. At the time, some questioned the legality of Augustus' elevation, since another candidate, François Louis, Prince of Conti, had received more votes. Each candidate, Conti and Augustus, was proclaimed as king by a different ecclesiastical authority: (the Primate Michaŀ Radziejowski proclaimed Conti and the bishop of Kujawy, Stanisław Dąmbski proclaimed Augustus, with Jacob Heinrich von Flemming swearing to the pacta conventaas Augustus's proxy). However, Augustus hurried to the Commonwealth with a Saxon army, while Conti stayed in France for two months. Although he had led the imperial troops against Turkey in 1695 and 1696 without very much success, Augustus continued the war of the Holy League against Turkey, and afte...
The weakened Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth soon came to be regarded as almost a protectorate of Russia. In 1709 Augustus II returned to the Polish throne under Russian auspices. Once again he attempted to establish an absolute monarchy in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, but was faced with opposition from the nobility (szlachta, see Tarnogród Confederation). He was handicapped by the mutual jealousy of the Saxons and the Poles, and a struggle broke out in Poland which was only ended when the king promised to limit the number of his army in that country to 18,000 men. Peter the Great seized on the opportunity to pose as mediator, threatened the Commonwealth militarily, and in 1717 forced Augustus and the nobility to sign an accommodation favorable to Russian interests, at the Silent Sejm (Sejm Niemy). For the remainder of his reign, in an uneasy relationship, Augustus was more or less dependent on Russia (and to a lesser extent, on Austria) to maintain his Polish throne. He gave...
Augustus II and the arts
Augustus is perhaps best remembered as a patron of the arts and architecture. He had beautiful palaces built in Dresden, a city that became renowned for extraordinary cultural brilliance. He introduced the first public museums, such as the Green Vault in 1723, and started systematic collection of paintings that are now on display in the Old Masters Gallery. From 1687 to 1689, Augustus toured France and Italy. The extravagant court in Versailles—perfectly tailored to fit the needs of an absolu...
Augustus II successfully sponsored efforts to discover the secret of manufacturing porcelain. In 1701 he rescued the young alchemist Johann Friedrich Böttger, who had fled from the court of the king of Prussia, Frederick I, who had expected that he produce gold for him as he had boasted he could. Augustus imprisoned Böttger and tried to force him to reveal the secret of manufacturing gold. Böttger's transition from alchemist to potter was orchestrated as an attempt to avoid the impossible dem...
Order of the White Eagle
In November 1705 in Tykocin, Augustus founded the Order of the White Eagle, Poland's first and preeminent order of chivalry. In 1723 he bought the Großsedlitz estate near Dresden, and after expanding the palace and garden complex, in 1727 he organized there the first ever festivities of the Order of the White Eagle. In Warsaw, the Saxon Garden (Polish: Ogród Saski) commemorates the role of Augustus II in expanding the city's public places.
In 1936 Augustus was the subject of a Polish-German film Augustus the Strong directed by Paul Wegener. Augustus was portrayed by the actor Michael Bohnen.
The Electress Christiane, who remained Protestant and refused to move to Poland with her husband, preferred to spend her time in the mansion in Pretzsch on the Elbe, where she died. Augustus, a voracious womanizer, never missed his wife, spending his time with a series of mistresses: 1. 1694–1696 with Countess Maria Aurora von Königsmarck 2. 1696–1699 with Countess Anna Aloysia Maximiliane von Lamberg 3. 1698–1704 with Ursula Katharina of Altenbockum, later Princess of Teschen 4. 1701–1706 with Fatima, Turkish woman, renamed later as Maria Aurora von Spiegel 5. 1704–1713 with Anna Constantia von Brockdorff, later Countess of Cosel 6. 1706–1707 with Henriette Rénard 7. 1708 with Angélique Duparc, French dancer and actress 8. 1713–1719 with Maria Magdalena of Bielinski, by her first marriage Countess of Dönhoffand by the second Princess Lubomirska 9. 1720–1721 with Erdmuthe Sophie of Dieskau, by marriage of Loß 10. 1721–1722 with Baroness Kristiane of Osterhausen, by marriage of Stani...In Latin: Augustus Secundus, Dei Gratia rex Poloniae, magnus dux Lithuaniae, Russie, Prussiae, Masoviae, Samogitiae, Livoniae, Kijoviae, Volhyniae, Podoliae, Podlachiae, Smolensciae, Severiae, Czer...English translation: Augustus II, by the grace of God, King of Poland, Grand Duke of Lithuania, Ruthenia, Prussia, Masovia, Samogitia, Livonia, Kiev, Volhynia, Podolia, Podlachia, Smolensk, Severia...