The principality was established at the death of Frederick V, Burgrave of Nuremberg, on 21 January 1398, when his lands were partitioned between his two sons. The younger son, Frederick VI , received Ansbach and the elder, John III , received Bayreuth .https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fürstentum_Ansbach
The principality arose upon the death of the Hohenzollern burgrave Frederick V of Nuremberg on 21 January 1398, when his lands were partitioned between his two sons: the elder, Burgrave John III received Kulmbach-Bayreuth and the younger, Frederick VI, received the Principality of Ansbach.
The senior Franconian branch of the House of Hohenzollern was founded by Conrad I, Burgrave of Nuremberg (1186–1261). The family supported the Hohenstaufen and Habsburg rulers of the Holy Roman Empire during the 12th to 15th centuries, being rewarded with several territorial grants.
The principality was established at the death of Frederick V, Burgrave of Nuremberg, on 21 January 1398, when his lands were partitioned between his two sons. The younger son, Frederick VI , received Ansbach and the elder, John III , received Bayreuth .
- East Franconian
John (1369–23 July 1385). John of Görlitz (1370–1396), margrave of Moravia and duke of Görlitz, who married Richardis Catherine of Sweden. Charles (13 March 1372–24 July 1373). Margaret of Bohemia (1373–1410), who was married to John III, Burgrave of Nuremberg. Mary (1375–24 July 1385). Henry (1377–1378). Queen and Empress
June 11 – John III, Burgrave of Nuremberg (born c.1369) August 9 – Pierre d'Ailly, French theologian and cardinal (born 1351) September 3 – Robert Stewart, 1st Duke of Albany, regent of Scotland; date unknown. Epiphanius the Wise, Russian saint; Andrew of Wyntoun, Scottish chronicler (born 1350)
John III, Burgrave of Nuremberg • 1769–91 (last) Christian Frederick, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach: Historical era: Middle Ages • Partitioned from ...
|-- John II of_Nuremberg  | burgrave of Nuremberg | d.1357 | |-- Conrad II of_Nuremberg |  | burgrave of Nuremberg d.1334 group index main index home page Frederick III of_Nuremberg = unknown
- Counts of Zollern
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One of the most prominent ruling houses in the history of Europe, the Hohenzollern Dynasty played a major role in the history of Germany from the late Middle Ages until the end of World War I. It takes its name from a castle in Swabia first mentioned as Zolorin or Zolre (the modern Hohenzollern, south of Tübingen, in the Land Baden-Württemberg).
The oldest known mention of the Zollern was in 1061 by Berthold of Reichenau. It was a county, ruled by the counts of Zollern, whose descent has been attempted to be linked (without success) to the Burchardingerdynasty. 1. until 1061: Burkhard I 2. before 1125: Frederick I 3. between ca. 1125 and 1142: Frederick II, eldest son of Frederick I:XLI 4. between ca. 1143 and 1150-1155: Burkhard II, 2nd oldest son of Frederick I:XLI 5. between ca. 1150-1155 and 1160: Gotfried of Zimmern, 4th oldest son of Frederick I:XLI 6. before 1171 – c. 1200: Frederick III/I (son of Frederick II, also Burgrave of Nuremberg) Count Frederick III of Zollern was a loyal retainer of the Holy Roman Emperors Frederick Barbarossa and Henry VI, and around 1185 he married Sophia of Raabs, the daughter of Conrad II, Burgrave of Nuremberg. After the death of Conrad II, often referred to as Kurt II who left no male heirs, Frederick III was granted the burgraviate of Nuremberg in 1192 as Burgrave Frederick I of Nure...
The cadet Franconian branch of the House of Hohenzollern was founded by Conrad I, Burgrave of Nuremberg(1186-1261). Beginning in the 16th century, this branch of the family became Protestant and decided on expansion through marriage and the purchase of surrounding lands. The family supported the Hohenstaufen and Habsburgrulers of the Holy Roman Empire during the 12th to 15th centuries, and they were rewarded with several territorial grants. In the first phase, the family gradually added to their lands, at first with many small acquisitions in the Franconian and Bavarianregions of Germany: 1. Ansbachin 1331 2. Kulmbachin 1340 In the second phase, the family expanded their lands further with large acquisitions in the Brandenburg and Prussian regions of Germany and current Poland: 1. Margraviate of Brandenburgin 1417 2. Duchy of Prussiain 1618 These acquisitions eventually transformed the Hohenzollerns from a minor German princely family into one of the most important in Europe.
Margraves of Brandenburg (1415–1819)
1. 1415-1440 Frederick I 2. 1471-1486 Albrecht III Achilles 3. 1486-1499 John Cicero 4. 1499-1535 Joachim I Nestor 5. 1535-1571 Joachim II Hector 6. 1571-1598 John George 7. 1598-1608 Joachim III Frederick 8. 1608-1619 John Sigismund
Margraves of Brandenburg-Küstrin (1535–1571)
The short-lived Margraviate of Brandenburg-Küstrin was set up, against the Hohenzollern house laws on succession, as a secundogeniture fiefof the House of Hohenzollern, a typical German institution. 1. 1535–1571: John the Wise, Margrave of Brandenburg-Küstrin (son of Joachim I Nestor, Elector of Brandenburg) He died without issue. The Margraviate of Brandenburg-Küstrin was absorbed in 1571 into the Margraviate and Electorate of Brandenburg.
Margraves of Brandenburg-Schwedt (1688–1788)
From 1688 onwards the Margraves of Brandenburg-Schwedt were a side branch of the House of Hohenzollern. Though recognised as a branch of the main dynasty the Margraviate of Brandenburg-Schwedtnever constituted a principality with allodial rights of its own. 1. 1688–1711 : Philip William, Prince in Prussia, Margrave of Brandenburg-Schwedt (son of Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg) 2. 1731–1771 : Frederick William, Prince in Prussia, Margrave of Brandenburg-Schwedt (son of) 3. 1771–1788...
The senior Swabian branch of the House of Hohenzollern was founded by Frederick II, Burgrave of Nuremberg. Ruling the minor German principalities of Hechingen, Sigmaringen and Haigerloch, this branch of the family decided to remain Roman Catholic and from 1567 onwards split into the Hohenzollern-Hechingen, Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen and Hohenzollern-Haigerloch branches. The Romanian branch of this family became Orthodox, starting from Ferdinand's I children. When the last count of Hohenzollern, Charles I of Hohenzollern(1512–1579) died, the territory was to be divided up between his three sons: 1. Eitel Frederick IV of Hohenzollern-Hechingen(1545–1605) 2. Charles II of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen(1547–1606) 3. Christopher of Hohenzollern-Haigerloch(1552–1592) They never expanded from these three Swabianprincipalities, which was one of the reasons they became relatively unimportant in German history for much of their existence. However, they kept royal lineage and married members of the g...
The Principality of Romania was established in 1862, after the Ottoman vassal states of Wallachia and Moldavia had been united in 1859 under Alexandru Ioan Cuza as Prince of Romania in a personal union. He was deposed in 1866 by the Romanian parliament which then invited a German prince of the Hohenzollern-Sigmaringenfamily, Charles, to become Prince of Romania under the name Prince Carol. In 1881 the Principality of Romania was proclaimed a Kingdom. For dynastic reasons, Carol's grandchildre...
Succession (1947 until today)
Michael has retained his claim on the defunct Romanian throne. At present, the claim is not recognised by Romania, a republic. At 10 May 2011, Michael severed all of the dynastic and historical ties between the House of Romaniaand the House of Hohenzollern.
An article on the Coat of arms of Prussia can be found. The explanation of the shield can be found at Great Shield of the Kings of Prussia (German). Coat of arms of PrussiaCoat of arms of GermanyCoat of arms of PrussiaCoat of arms of GermanyHouse Order of Hohenzollern
- Early Life
- Early Reign
- Later Reign
- Evaluation and Legacy
- Patronage of Culture and The Arts
- Family and Children
- Named After Charles IV
Charles IV was born to King John of the Luxembourg dynasty and Queen Elizabeth of Bohemia of the Czech Premyslid Dynasty in Prague. He was originally named Wenceslaus (Václav), the name of his maternal grandfather, King Wenceslaus II. He chose the name Charles at his confirmation in honor of his uncle, King Charles IV of France, at whose court he was resident for seven years. He received French education and was literate and fluent in five languages: Latin, Czech, German, French, and Italian. In 1331, he gained some experience of warfare in Italy with his father. At the beginning of 1333, Charles went to Lucca (Tuscany) to consolidate his rule there. In an effort to defend the city, Charles founded the nearby fortress and the town of Montecarlo (Charles' Mountain). From 1333, he administered the lands of the Bohemian Crown due to his father's frequent absence and deteriorating eyesight. In 1334, Charles was named Margrave of Moravia, the traditional title for heirs to the throne. Tw...
On 11 July 1346, in consequence of an alliance between his father and Pope Clement VI, relentless enemy of the emperor Louis IV, Charles was chosen as Roman king in opposition to Louis by some of the prince-electors at Rhens. As he had previously promised to be subservient to Clement, he made extensive concessions to the pope in 1347. Confirming the papacy in the possession of vast territories, he promised to annul the acts of Louis against Clement, to take no part in Italian affairs, and to defend and protect the church. Charles IV was in a very weak position in Germany. Owing to the terms of his election, he was derisively referred to as a "Priests' King" (Pfaffenkönig). Many bishops and nearly all of the Imperial cities remained loyal to Louis the Bavarian. Worse still, Charles backed the wrong side in the Hundred Years' War, losing his father and many of his best knights at the Battle of Crécyin August 1346, with Charles himself escaping from the field wounded. Charles initially...
Having made good use of the difficulties of his opponents, Charles was again elected in Frankfurt on 17 June 1349 and re-crowned at Aachen on 25 July 1349. He was soon the undisputed ruler of the Empire. Gifts or promises had won the support of the Rhenish and Swabian towns; a marriage alliance secured the friendship of the Habsburgs; and an alliance with Rudolf II of Bavaria, Count Palatine of the Rhine, was obtained when Charles, who had become a widower in 1348, married Rudolph's daughter Anna. In 1350, the king was visited at Prague by the Roman tribune Cola di Rienzo, who urged him to go to Italy, where the poet Petrarch and the citizens of Florence also implored his presence. Turning a deaf ear to these entreaties, Charles kept Cola in prison for a year, and then handed him as a prisoner to Clement at Avignon. Outside Prague, Charles attempted to expand the Bohemian crown lands, using his imperial authority to acquire fiefs in Silesia, the Upper Palatinate, and Franconia. The...
In 1354, Charles crossed the Alps without an army, received the Lombard crown in St. Ambrose Basilica, Milan, on 5 January 1355, and was crowned emperor at Rome by a cardinal in April of the same year. His sole object appears to have been to obtain the Imperial crown in peace, in accordance with a promise previously made to Pope Clement. He only remained in the city for a few hours, in spite of the expressed wishes of the Roman people. Having virtually abandoned all the Imperial rights in Italy, the emperor re-crossed the Alps, pursued by the scornful words of Petrarch, but laden with considerable wealth. On his return, Charles was occupied with the administration of the Empire, then just recovering from the Black Death, and in 1356, he promulgated the famous Golden Bullto regulate the election of the king. Having given Moravia to one brother, John Henry, and erected the county of Luxembourg into a duchy for another, Wenceslaus, he was unremitting in his efforts to secure other terr...
His second journey to Italy took place in 1368, when he had a meeting with Pope Urban V at Viterbo, was besieged in his palace at Siena, and left the country before the end of 1369. During his later years, the emperor took little part in German affairs beyond securing the election of his son Wenceslaus as king of the Romans in 1376, and negotiating a peace between the Swabian League of Cities and some nobles in 1378. After dividing his lands between his three sons and his nephews, he died in November 1378 at Prague, where he was buried, and where a statue was erected to his memory in 1848. Charles IV suffered from gout(metabolic arthritis), a painful disease quite common in that time.
The reign of Charles IV was characterised by a transformation in the nature of the Empire and is remembered as the Golden Age of Bohemia. He promulgated the Golden Bull of 1356whereby the succession to the imperial title was laid down, which held for the next four centuries. He also organized the states of the empire into peace-keeping confederations. In these, the Imperial cities figured prominently. The Swabian Landfriede confederation of 1370 was made up almost entirely of Imperial Cities. At the same time, the leagues were organized and led by the crown and its agents. As with the electors, the cities that served in these leagues were given privileges to aid in their efforts to keep the peace. He assured his dominance over the eastern borders of the Empire through succession treaties with the Habsburgs and the purchase of Brandenburg. He also claimed imperial lordship over the crusader states of Prussia and Livonia.
Prague became the capital of the Holy Roman Empire during the reign of Charles IV. The name of the royal founder and patron remains on many monuments and institutions, for example Charles University, Charles Bridge, Charles Square. High Gothic Prague Castle and part of the cathedral of Saint Vitus by Peter Parler were also built under his patronage. Finally, the first flowering of manuscript painting in Prague dates from Charles' reign. In the present Czech Republic, he is still regarded as Pater Patriae (father of the country or otec vlasti), a title first coined by Adalbertus Ranconis de Ericinioat his funeral. Charles also had strong ties to Nuremberg, staying within its city walls 52 times and thereby strengthening its reputation amongst German cities. Charles was the patron of the Nuremberg Frauenkirche, built between 1352 and 1362 (the architect was likely Peter Parler), where the imperial court worshipped during its stays in Nuremberg. Charles's imperial policy was focused on...
Charles was married four times. His first wife was Blanche of Valois, (1316–48), daughter of Charles, Count of Valois, and a half-sister of Philip VI of France. They had three children: 1. son (b.1334), died young 2. Margaret of Bohemia (1335 - 1349); married Louis I of Hungary. 3. Catherine of Bohemia (1342–95); married Rudolf IV of Austria and Otto V, Duke of Bavaria, Elector of Brandenburg. He secondly married Anna of Bavaria, (1329–53), daughter of Rudolf II, Duke of Bavaria; they had one son: 1. Wenceslaus (1350–51). His third wife was Anna von Schweidnitz, (1339–62), daughter of Henry II, Duke of Świdnica and Katharina of Anjou (daughter of Charles I Robert, King of Hungary), by whom he had three children: 1. Elisabeth of Bohemia (19 April 1358 – 4 September 1373); married Albert III of Austria. 2. Wenceslaus (1361–1419); later elected King of Germany (formally King of the Romans) and, on his father's death, became King of Bohemia (as Wenceslaus IV) and Emperor-elect of the Ho...
Castles built or established by Charles IV. 1. Karlstein Castle, 1348–55 in Central Bohemian Region for safekeeping the Imperial Regalia, especially the Imperial Crown of the Holy Roman Empire (later the Czech Crown Jewelswere also kept there) 2. Kašperk Castle (Karlsberg), 1356 in Klatovy District 3. Lauf (Wenzelsburg) - built on the way connecting Prague and Nuremberg in Bohemian Palatinate, inside survived 112 coats of arms of the Czech Kingdom 4. Montecarloin Italy 5. Radyně (Karlskrone) – around 1360 in Plzeň Region 6. Hrádek u Purkarce(Karlshaus) - around 1357 7. Tepenec(Twingenberg, Karlsburg) 8. Karlsfried Castle
Other places named after Charles: 1. Karlštejncastle, Czech Republic 2. Karlštejn(town), Czech Republic 3. Charles Bridge, Prague (Karlův most) 4. Charles University, Prague (Karlova Univerzita) 5. Karlovy Varyspa, Czech Republic 6. Carlsbad(several places in the United States) 7. Charles Square, Prague (Karlovo náměstí) 8. Montecarlo (Charles' Mountain) fort and village in Italy 9. 16951 Carolus Quartus(an asteroid)
Christina of Denmark (Danish: Christine af Danmark; November 1521 – 10 December 1590) was a Danish princess, the younger surviving daughter of King Christian II of Denmark and Norway and Isabella of Austria. She became the duchess-consort of Milan, then duchess-consort of Lorraine. She served as the regent of Lorraine from 1545 to 1552 during ...