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  1. Joseph (Joe) Ralston Caldwell (June 14, 1916 – December 23, 1973) was an American archaeologist was born in Cleveland, Ohio. He conducted major excavations in the Savannah, Georgia area in the late 1930s at the Irene site as part of Depression era archaeology program .

    Joe Caldwell (archaeologist) - Wikipedia
  2. Joe Caldwell (archaeologist) - Wikipedia

    Joseph (Joe) Ralston Caldwell (June 14, 1916 – December 23, 1973) was an American archaeologist was born in Cleveland, Ohio. He conducted major excavations in the Savannah, Georgia area in the late 1930s at the Irene site as part of Depression era archaeology program .

  3. Joseph Ralston Caldwell (1916-1973) was an archeologist best known for conducting Works Projects Administration (WPA) excavations in Chatham county, Georgia, circa 1937-1941. Caldwell then served as scientific aide to the National Museum's Director of Anthropology (1943-1945) and as an archeologist for the Smithsonian's River Basin Surveys ...

  4. Joseph R. Caldwell photographs of archeological excavations ...

    Joseph Ralston Caldwell (1916-1973) was an archeologist best known for conducting Works Projects Administration (WPA) excavations in Chatham county, Georgia, circa 1937-1941.

  5. Joseph Caldwell's Summerour Mound

    The Summerour Mound (9FO16), in the flood- plain of the Chattahoochee River in northern Georgia, was excavated by Joseph Caldwell prior to the inundation of the Buford Reservoir (later Lake Lanier) in the 1950s.

  6. Hopewell Archeology: Volume 7, Number 2, June 2010

    This paper focuses on the Hopewell Interaction Sphere theory, introduced in 1964 by Hopewell archaeologist Joseph Caldwell. Caldwell (1964) interpreted the archaeological designation “Hopewell” as one of the interaction spheres active in the prehistoric Americas, an idea that is still used today.

  7. Rood Creek Mounds | Access Genealogy
    • Ethnic Identities of Town Occupants
    • Chronology of Rood Creek
    • Probable Itza and Chontal Maya Influence
    • Town Plan of Rood Creek Mounds
    • Architecture of Rood Creek Mounds
    • Archaeological Studies of Rood Creek Mounds
    • Ownership and Access to Rood Creek Mounds

    The founders of Rood Creek Mounds probably originated from the Macon Plateau, Tampa Bay, Lake Okeechobee Basin, Tamaulipas, Mexico or Tabasco, Mexico. More discussion about the origins of Rood Creek can be found in the sections of this report on “Archaeological studies” and “The evidence of a Mesoamerican influence.” In 1653, Englishman Richard Brigstock visited the Highland Apalache in northern Georgia. Brigstock later told French ethnologist, Charles de Rochefort, that the Apalache originated in the region around Ocmulgee National Monument then occupied the Chattahoochee River Basin. After establishing their capital in the Upper Piedmont of Georgia they claimed to have founded a colony near the Gulf Coast, which eventually evolved a somewhat different language and culture. Those Apalache (Apalachicola) living along the Chattahoochee River continued to be part of the Highland Apalache cultural tradition. This information matches archaeological evidence found by Joseph Caldwell. [Fo...

    The Rood Creek Mounds Site at least dates to the earliest manifestations of the Mississippian culture. This is known from the discovery of artifacts typical of Ocmulgee National Monument’s early occupation. In its cultural history of Ocmulgee National Monument, the National Park Service dates the arrival of “Mississippians” at Rood Creek as being contemporary with the Macon Plateau. Given the much greater size of the town in comparison to other towns along the Chattahoochee River, it could well be one of the mother towns of the Chattahoochee Basin. The very limited examination of four mounds revealed some Woodland style pottery in the sub-mound levels. Since the mounds studies were on the extreme eastern edge of the site, it is likely that more Woodland Period pottery would be found where Joseph Caldwell did not search. The smaller and land-locked Singer-Moye Mounds site, located several miles to the east, has been more thoroughly studied with late 20thcentury technology. It was fou...

    At the time that the Spanish first explored the Gulf Coast region between Mobile Bay and Apalachee Bay it was called Am Ixchel, which are Itza Maya words that mean, “Place of the Goddess Ixchel.” This was also the name of the coastal area of Tamaulipas in northeastern Mexico and the tip of the Yucatan Peninsula. The three regions named Am Ixchel formed a equilateral triangle. The Chontal Mayas of Tabasco and their neighbors, the Itza Mayas of Chiapas were considered barbarians by the urbanites of Classic Period Maya cities because they were illiterate. However, by 800 AD, these two peoples had come to dominate regional trade in Mesoamerica. The Chontal Mayas were master seafarers who built true boats out of planks. Some were over 60 feet long and had rudders and sails. The Itza Mayas established fortified trading posts at key mountain passes and confluences of rivers and dominated the inland trade. The language spoken by most Creeksin Georgia, western North Carolina, South Carolina...

    Like Ocmulgee, Shiloh (TN) and Moundville (AL) Rood Creek was situated on a terrace overlooking a large river and fertile bottomlands. In its final form, the footprint of Rood Creek was roughly a non-symmetrical rectangle. Its southwestern, southwestern and northeastern palisades were adjacent to Rood Creek. It is possible that Rood Creek was relocated from its Early Mississippian channel, but this is not known for certain. The original plan was probably very similar to Ocmulgee’s; a townscape cluster along a linear plaza. Its ultimate town plan, however, was very different than those of most of the indigenous towns in the Southeast. It was distinctly Totonac and Itza Maya in character, yet unlike Maya cities, the population was crowded behind timber walls. Some smaller Maya cities in the Puuc Region of eastern Campeche also had walls and gates, but this was not common elsewhere in the Yucatan. Totonac and Itza Maya town plans were asymmetrical. Major public structures were interlin...

    The platform mounds at Rood Creek are dispersed around the town and each has its own plaza. This is typical of Maya and Totonac cities during the Classic Period of Mexico. There are several types of mounds at Rood Creek that represent all three intervals of the Mississippian Cultural Period. Some of the mounds closer to the river may have bases dating from the Late Woodland Period. The residential architecture of Rood Creek was not studied by Joseph Caldwell. For the attached illustrations (see photo gallery below), it was assumed that its houses were like those in other towns along the Lower Chattahoochee River. These houses were rectangular. They were erected with prefabricated timber frames set into ditches. After the house was fully framed, about 8-12” of clay was plastered to a sapling lathing. The much largers houses of the elite had 2-3 rooms and were plastered with colorful clays. The roofs of all buildings were either thatched, covered in river canes or finished with bark s...

    At the turn of the century, Clarence Bloomfield Moore attempted to excavate the mounds, but was denied access. In the early 1950s, Arthur Kelly, Director of the Department of Anthropology at the University of Georgia walked over the Rood Creek site after it had been plowed. He collected hundreds of potsherds, tools and weapons to analyze. The announcement of the construction of the Gaines Dam on the Chattahoochee River below Columbus caused local historians to be concerned that the Rood Creek Mounds site would be covered in water before being studied. The Corps was funding archaeological studies near the proposed site of Buford Dam, north of Atlanta, and in the late 1940s had funded a comprehensive archaeological survey of the Allatoona Dam, north of Atlanta. It is not clear, why similar studied were not authorized for what would become Lake Eufaula. Perhaps only surveys were being authorized, not extensive digs. Several civic leaders in Columbus pooled their funds to hire an archae...

    Rood Creek Mounds is today located on Lake Eufaula in Stewart County, GA. The archaeological zone today is owned and managed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers as part of the Rood Landing Recreation Area. The ruins can only be viewed in the presence of a ACE ranger by previous appointment.

  8. A Guide to Georgia Indian Pottery Types -

    Charles Fairbanks, Joseph Caldwell, Robert Wauchope, Jesse Jennings, Antonio Waring, and Arthur Kelly. In Florida the work was led by John Goggin, John Griffin, and Gordon Willey. In Tennessee Tom Lewis and Madeline Kneberg were the leaders, while in Alabama David DeJarnette, Stephen Wimberly, Bill Haag, and Marion Heimlich were busily naming ...

  9. (PDF) Evidence of Small-Scale Feasting from the Woodland ...

    Joseph Caldwell's Summerour Mound (9FO16) and Woodland Platform Mounds in the Southeastern United St... January 1996 · Southeastern Archaeology Thomas Pluckhahn

  10. Archaeology of the Native South Midterm Flashcards | Quizlet

    Joseph Caldwell: Network of different societies linked by particular materials or practices even though their daily lives were independent from each other, describes but does not explain (Benton and Bone Pins)

  11. Joseph R. Caldwell, "Cultural Relations"; Caldwell, "A Spanish Mission Site near Darien"; Caldwell, "Excavations at a Spanish Mission Site in Georgia." 14 Richard W. Jefferies and Christopher R. Moore, "Mission San Joseph de Sapala," in Life among the Tides , 345-374. 15 David Hurst Thomas, The History and Archaeology of Mission Santa Catalina de