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  1. Joseph Stalin - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Stalin

    In this Eastern Slavic name , the patronymic is Vissarionovich and the family name is Stalin . Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin [b] (born Ioseb Besarionis dzе Jughashvili , 18 December [O.S. 6 December] 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Georgian revolutionary and Soviet politician who ruled the Soviet Union from the mid-1920s until his death in 1953. During his years in power, he served as both ...

  2. Joseph Stalin From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Joseph Stalin (born as Ioseb Besarionis dze Jughashvili) (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Georgian politician who became leader of the Soviet Union from 1922 until his death. He replaced Vladimir Lenin as leader of the Soviet Union.

  3. Rise of Joseph Stalin - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rise_of_Joseph_Stalin

    Joseph Stalin was a Georgian born student radical who became a member and eventually became leader of the Bolshevik faction of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party.He served as the General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1922 until his death in 1953.

  4. Early life of Joseph Stalin - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Early_life_of_Joseph_Stalin

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Joseph Stalin in 1902, 23 years of age The early life of Joseph Stalin covers the life of Joseph Stalin from his birth on 6 December 1879 (18 December, New Style) until the October Revolution on 25 October 1917 (7 November).

  5. Death and state funeral of Joseph Stalin - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death_and_state_funeral_of...

    Joseph Stalin, the second leader of the Soviet Union, died on 5 March 1953 at the Kuntsevo Dacha aged 74 after suffering a stroke. He was given a state funeral with four days of national mourning declared. His body was subsequently embalmed and interred in Lenin's & Stalin's Mausoleum until 1961.

  6. Joseph Stalin - Wikipedia

    sco.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stalin

    Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1879 – 5 Mairch 1953) wis a Soviet politeecian an heid o state who servit as the first General Secretar o the Communist Pairty o the Soviet Union 's Central Committee frae 1922 till his daith in 1953.

  7. Joseph Stalin Museum, Gori - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Stalin_Museum,_Gori

    The Joseph Stalin Museum is a museum in Gori, Georgia dedicated to the life of Joseph Stalin, the leader of the Soviet Union, who was born in Gori.The Museum retains its Soviet-era characteristics.

  8. Joseph Stalin - Wikipedia

    war.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Stalin

    Hi Joseph Stalin o Iosif Vissarionovich Stalin (ha Rinuso Ио́сиф Виссарио́нович Ста́лин, ginluluwas nga [ˈjɵsʲɪf vʲɪsɐˈrʲɵnəvʲɪtɕ ˈstalʲɪn];, puyde liwat Josef Stalin o kundi man José Stalin nga natawo ha ngaran nga Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jugashvili, Hineorhyano: იოსებ ბესარიონის ძე ჯუღაშვილი ...

  9. 1936 Constitution of the Soviet Union - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Stalin_constitution

    The 1936 Constitution of the Soviet Union, also known as the Stalin Constitution, was the constitution of the Soviet Union adopted on 5 December 1936.. The 1936 Constitution was the second constitution of the Soviet Union and replaced the 1924 Constitution, with 5 December being celebrated annually as Soviet Constitution Day from its adoption by the Congress of Soviets.

  10. Joseph Stalin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    nlp.cs.nyu.edu/meyers/controversial-wikipedia...
    • Introduction
    • Childhood and Early Years
    • Marriages and Family
    • Rise to Power
    • Stalin and Changes in Soviet Society
    • World War II
    • Post-War Era
    • Stalin as Theorist
    • Death
    • Cult of Personality

    Born Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვილი; Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Джугашвили [Iosif Vissarionovič Džugašvili]), Stalin became General Secretary of the Soviet Communist Party in 1922. Following the death of Vladimir Lenin, during the 1920s he prevailed in a power struggle over Leon Trotsky. In the 1930s Stalin initiated the Great Purge, a campaign of political repression, persecution and executions that reached its peak in 1937. Stalin's rule had long-lasting effects on the features that characterized the Soviet state from the era of his rule to its collapse in 1991—though Maoists, anti-revisionists and some others say he was actually the last legitimate Socialist leader in the Soviet Union's history. Stalin claimed his policies were based on Marxism-Leninism; they are now often considered to represent a political and economic system called Stalinism. Stalin replaced the New Economic Policy (NEP) of the 1920s with Five-Year Plans in 1928 and collective f...

    Reliable sources about Stalin's youth are few; however those which were left were subject to censorship as was common during Stalin's reign. Some consider the writings of Stalin's daughter, Svetlana Alliluyevato be the most reliable sources, since they were not censored. Joseph Stalin was born Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili in Gori, Georgia, Russian Empire to Vissarion Dzhugashvili and Ekaterina Geladze. In 1913, he adopted the name Stalin, which is derived from the Russian stal’ (Russian: сталь) for "steel". His mother was born a serf. The other three children died young; "Soso" (the Georgian pet name for Joseph), was effectively the only child. According to the official version, his father Vissarion was a cobbler. He opened his own shop, but quickly went bankrupt, forcing him to work in a shoe factory in Tiflis. (Archer 11) Rarely seeing his family and drinking heavily, Vissarion often beat his wife and small son. One of Stalin's friends from childhood wrote, "Those undeserved...

    Stalin's first wife, Ekaterina Svanidze, died in 1907, only four years after their marriage. At her funeral, Stalin allegedly said that any warm feelings he had for people died with her, for only she could melt his 'stony heart'. To him, her life was the only thing that made him happy. They had a son together, Yakov Dzhugashvili, with whom Stalin did not get along in later years. His son finally shot himself because of Stalin's harshness toward him, but survived. After this, Stalin said "He can't even shoot straight". Yakov served in the Red Army during World War II and was captured by the Germans. They offered to exchange him for Fieldmarshal Paulus, but Stalin turned the offer down, allegedly saying "A lieutenant is not worth a general"; others credit him with saying "I have no son," to this offer, and Yakov is said to have committed suicide, running into an electric fence in Sachsenhausen concentration camp, where he was being held. His second wife was Nadezhda Alliluyeva, who di...

    In 1912 Stalin was co-opted to the Bolshevik Central Committee at the Prague Party Conference. In 1917 Stalin was editor of Pravda, the official Communist newspaper, while Lenin and much of the Bolshevik leadership were in exile. Following the February Revolution, Stalin and the editorial board took a position in favor of supporting Kerensky's provisional governmentand, it is alleged, went to the extent of declining to publish Lenin's articles arguing for the provisional government to be overthrown. In April 1917, Stalin was elected to the Central Committee with the third highest vote total in the party and was subsequently elected to the Politburoof the Central Committee (May 1917); he held this position for the remainder of his life. According to many accounts, Stalin only played a minor role in the revolution of November 7. Other writers, such as Adam Ulam, have argued that each man in the Central Committee had a specific job to which he was assigned. The following summary of Tro...

    Industrialization

    1. Main article: Industrialization of the USSR The Russian Civil War and wartime communism had a devastating effect on the country's economy. Industrial output in 1922 was 13% of that in 1914. A recovery followed under the New Economic Policy, which allowed a degree of market flexibility within the context of socialism. Under Stalin's direction, this was replaced by a system of centrally ordained "Five-Year Plans" in the late 1920s. These called for a highly ambitious program of state-guided...

    Collectivization

    1. Main article: Collectivization in the USSR Stalin's regime moved to force collectivization of agriculture. This was intended to increase agricultural output from large-scale mechanized farms, to bring the peasantry under more direct political control, and to make tax collection more efficient. Collectivization meant drastic social changes, on a scale not seen since the abolition of serfdom in 1861, and alienationfrom control of the land and its produce. Collectivization also meant a drasti...

    Science

    1. Main articles: Science and technology in the Soviet Union, Suppressed research in the Soviet Union Science in the Soviet Union was under strict ideological control, along with art and literature. There was significant progress in "ideologically safe" domains, owing to the free Soviet education system and state-financed research. However, in several cases the consequences of ideological pressure were dramatic — the most notable examples being the "bourgeois pseudosciences" genetics and cybe...

    After the failure of Soviet and Franco-British talks on a mutual defense pact in Moscow, Stalin began to negotiate a non-aggression pact with Hitler's Germany. In his speech on August 19, 1939, Stalin prepared his comrades for the great turn in Soviet policy, the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact with Nazi Germany. According to a controversial Russian author living in the UK, Viktor Suvorov, Stalin expressed in the speech an expectation that the war would be the best opportunity to weaken both the Western nations and Nazi Germany, and make Germany suitable for "Sovietization". Whether this speech was ever delivered to the public and what its content was is still debated. (see Stalin's speech on August 19, 1939). Officially a non-aggression treaty only, the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact had a "secret" annex according to which Central Europe was divided into the two powers' respective spheres of influence. The USSR was promised an eastern part of Poland, primarily populated with Ukrainians and Beloru...

    Domestically, Stalin was seen as a great wartime leader who had led the Soviets to victory against the Nazis. By the end of the 1940s, Russian patriotism increased. For instance, some inventions and scientific discoveries were reclaimed by Russian researchers. Examples include the boiler, reclaimed by father and son Cherepanovs; the electric bulb, by Yablochkov and Lodygin; the radio, by Popov; and the airplane, by Mozhaysky. Stalin's internal repressive policies continued (including in newly acquired territories), but never reached the extremes of the 1930s. Internationally, Stalin viewed Soviet consolidation of power as a necessary step to protect the USSR by surrounding it with countries with friendly governments like the variety seen in Finland, to act as a cordon sanitaire(buffer) against possible invaders (while the West sought a similar buffer against alleged "communist expansion"). He had hoped that American withdrawal and demobilization would lead to increased communist inf...

    Stalin made few contributions to Communist (or, more specifically, Marxist-Leninist) theory, but the contributions he did make were accepted and upheld by all Soviet political scientists during his rule. Among Stalin's contributions were his "Marxism and the National Question", a work praised by Lenin; his "Trotskyism or Leninism", which was a factor in the "liquidation of Trotskyism as an ideological trend" within the CPSU(B). Stalin's Collected Works(in 13 volumes) was released in 1949. A subsequent 16 volume American Edition appeared, in which one volume consisted of the book "History of the CPSU(B) Short Course", although when released in 1938 this book was credited to a commission of the Central Committee. In 1936, Stalin announced that the society of the Soviet Union consisted of two non-antagonistic classes: workers and kolkhoz peasantry. These corresponded to the two different forms of property over the means of production that existed in the Soviet Union: state property (fo...

    On March 1, 1953, after an all-night dinner with interior minister Lavrenty Beria and future premiers Georgi Malenkov, Nikolai Bulganin and Nikita Khrushchev, Stalin collapsed in his room, having probably suffered a stroke that paralyzed the right side of his body. Although his guards thought it odd that he did not rise at his usual time, the next day they were under orders not to disturb him and he was not discovered until that evening. He died four days later, on March 5, 1953, at the age of 74, and was buried on March 9. His daughter Svetlana recalls the scene as she stood by his death bed "He suddenly opened his eyes and cast a glance over everyone in the room. It was a terrible glance. Then something incomprehensible and awesome happened. He suddenly lifted his left hand as though he were pointing to something above and bringing down a curse upon all of us. The next moment after a final effort the spirit wrenched its self free of the flesh." Officially, the cause of death was l...

    Stalin created a cult of personality in the Soviet Union around both himself and Lenin. The embalming of the Soviet founder in Lenin's Mausoleum was performed over the objection of Lenin's widow, Nadezhda Krupskaya. Stalin became the focus of massive adoration and even worship. Numerous towns, villages and cities were renamed after the Soviet leader (see List of places named after Stalin) and the Stalin Prize and Stalin Peace Prize were named in his honor. He accepted grandiloquent titles (e.g. "Coryphaeus of Science," "Father of Nations," "Brilliant Genius of Humanity," "Great Architect of Communism," "Gardener of Human Happiness," and others), and helped rewrite Soviet history to provide himself a more significant role in the revolution. At the same time, according to Khrushchev, he insisted that he be remembered for "the extraordinary modesty characteristic of truly great people." Many statues and monuments were erected to glorify Stalin but all of them distorted Stalin's true bu...

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