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  1. en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Juris_DoctorJuris Doctor - Wikipedia

    Juris Doctor. The Juris Doctor degree ( J.D. or JD ), also known as Doctor of Law or Doctor of Jurisprudence ( J.D., JD, D.Jur., or DJur ), is a graduate-entry professional degree in law and one of several Doctor of Law degrees. Although a graduate degree, the J.D. is the standard degree obtained to practice law in the United States because ...

  2. A doctor of both laws, from the Latin doctor utriusque juris, or juris utriusque doctor, or doctor juris utriusque ("doctor of both laws") (abbreviations include: JUD, IUD, DUJ, JUDr., DUI, DJU, Dr.iur.utr., Dr.jur.utr., DIU, UJD and UID) is a scholar who has acquired a doctorate in both civil and church law.

    • Etymology and Abbreviations
    • Historical Context
    • Creation of The J.D. and Major Common Law Approaches to Legal Education
    • Modern Variants and Curriculum
    • in Academia
    • Use of The Title "Doctor"
    • See Also

    In the United States, the professional doctorate in law may be conferred in Latin or in English as Juris Doctor (sometimes shown on Latin diplomas in the accusative form Juris Doctorem) and at some law schools Doctor of Law (J.D. or JD), or Doctor of Jurisprudence (also abbreviated JD or J.D.). "Juris Doctor" literally means "teacher of law", while the Latin for "Doctor of Jurisprudence" – Jurisprudentiae Doctor– literally means "teacher of legal knowledge". The J.D. is not to be confused with Doctor of Laws or Legum Doctor (LLD or LL.D.). In institutions where the latter can be earned, e.g. Cambridge University (where it is titled "Doctor of Law", though still retaining the abbreviation LL.D.) and many other British institutions, it is a higher research doctorate, representing a substantial contribution to the field over many years – a standard of professional experience beyond that required for a Ph.D. and academic accomplishment well beyond a professional degree such as the J.D.I...

    Origins of the law degree

    The first university in Europe, the University of Bologna, was founded as a school of law by four famous legal scholars in the 11th century who were students of the glossator school in that city. This served as the model for other law schools of the Middle Ages, and other early universities such as the University of Padua. The first academic degrees may[a] have been doctorates in civil law (doctores legum) followed by canon law (doctores decretorum); these were not professional degrees but ra...

    History of legal training in England

    The nature of the J.D. can be better understood by a review of the context of the history of legal education in England. The teaching of law at Cambridge and Oxford Universities was mainly for philosophical or scholarly purposes and not meant to prepare one to practice law.: 434, 435 The universities only taught civil and canon law (used in a very few jurisdictions, such as the courts of admiralty and church courts) but not the common law that applied in most jurisdictions. Professional train...

    Legal training in colonial North America and 19th-century United States

    Initially there was much resistance to lawyers in colonial North America because of the role they had played in hierarchical England, but slowly the colonial governments started using the services of professionals trained in the Inns of Court in London, and by the end of the American Revolution there was a functional bar in each state.: 775 Due to an initial distrust of a profession open only to the elite in England, as institutions for training developed in what would become the United State...

    The J.D. originated in the United States during a movement to improve training of the professions. Prior to the origination of the J.D., law students began law school either with only a high school diploma, or less than the amount of undergraduate study required to earn a bachelor's degree. The LL.B. persisted through the middle of the 20th century, after which a completed bachelor's degree became a requirement for virtually all students entering law school. The didactic approaches that resulted were revolutionary for university education and have slowly been implemented outside the U.S., but only recently (since about 1997) and in stages. The degrees which resulted from this new approach, such as the M.D. and the J.D., are just as different from their European counterparts as the educational approaches differ.

    Legal education is rooted in the history and structure of the legal system of the jurisdiction where the education is given; therefore, law degrees are vastly different from country to country, making comparisons among degrees problematic.This has proven true in the context of the various forms of the J.D. which have been implemented around the world. Until about 1997 the J.D. was unique to law schools in the U.S. But with the rise in international success of law firms from the United States, and the rise in students from outside the U.S. attending U.S. law schools, attorneys with the J.D. have become increasingly common internationally. Therefore, the prestige of the J.D. has also risen, and many universities outside the U.S. have started to offer the J.D., often for the express purpose of raising the prestige of their law school and graduates.Such institutions usually aim to appropriate the name of the degree only, and sometimes the new J.D. program of study is the same as that of...

    In the United States, the Juris Doctor is the degree that prepares the recipient to enter the law profession (as do the M.D. or D.O. in the medical profession and the D.D.S or D.M.D.in the dental profession). While the J.D. is the sole degree necessary to become a professor of law or to obtain a license to practice law, it (like the M.D., D.O, D.D.S, or D.M.D.) is not a "research degree". Research degrees in the study of law include the Master of Laws (LL.M.), which ordinarily requires the J.D. as a prerequisite, and the Doctor of Juridical Science (S.J.D. / J.S.D.), which ordinarily requires the LL.M. as a prerequisite. However, the American Bar Association has issued a Council Statement, advising law schools that the J.D. should be considered equivalent to the Ph.D."for educational employment" purposes. Accordingly, while most law professors are required to conduct original writing and research in order to be awarded tenure, the majority have a J.D. as their highest degree. Resear...

    It has been contrary to custom in the United States to address holders of the J.D. as "doctor". It was noted in the 1920s, when the title was widely used by people with doctorates (even those that were undergraduate qualifications, at the time) and others, that the J.D. stood apart from other doctorates in this respect.This continues to be the case in general today. In the late 1960s, the rising number of American law schools awarding J.D.s led to debate over whether lawyers could ethically use the title 'doctor'. Initial informal ethics opinions, based on the Canons of Professional Ethics then in force, came down against this.These were then reinforced with a full ethics opinion that maintained the ban on using the title in legal practice, as a form of self-laudation (except when dealing with countries where the use of "doctor" by lawyers was standard practice), but allowed the use of the title in academia 1. "if the school of graduation thinks of the J.D. degree as a doctor's degr...

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  4. Dr.iur. ( Doctor iuris) USA. LL.D. ( Legum Doctor ), motsvarar juris hedersdoktor. J.S.D. eller S.J.D. eller D.J.S. ( Doctor of Juridical Science ), motsvarar juris doktor. J.D. ( Juris Doctor ), motsvarar juristexamen. J.D.-examen utgör behörighetskrav för att få skriva bar exam som ska avläggas för att få praktisera juridik och kunna ...

  5. Identifies a person who has obtained the academic degree Juris Doctor or Doctor of Jurisprudence, which are different names for the same professional degree in law. Arizona discourages use of the initials by people who are not members of the Arizona Bar, in case that might mislead the general public in thinking the person is licensed; and other ...

  6. www.best-doctor.net › is-a-juris-doctor-a-doctorateIs A Juris Doctor A Doctorate

    Best Online Juris Doctor Degrees in USA 2021/2022. Doctor Details: The Juris Doctor (JD) is a professional doctorate and first professional graduate degree in law and allows individuals to take the bar exam in all 50 states. The JD program at the University of Illinois is full-time for three years of study.

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