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    related to: kalisz poland before the holocaust
  1. Jewish Community of Kalisz in the Interwar Years | The ...

    encyclopedia.ushmm.org/content/en/article/jewish...

    Jewish Community of Kalisz in the Interwar Years. Considered by many to be the oldest Jewish community in Poland, Kalisz had a population of 15,300 Jews (almost 30 percent of the total population), according to the 1931 Polish census. Famous for producing lace and other textiles, the Jews of Kalisz built a vibrant religious and cultural life and an active political life during nine centuries of residence in the town.

  2. History of the Jewish Community in Kalisz: 12th Century to ...

    encyclopedia.ushmm.org/content/en/article/...

    Located in the Poznan province west of Lodz, Kalisz was for centuries a border town between Poland and Germany. One of the oldest cities in Poland, Kalisz also played an pivotal role in Polish Jewish history: in 1264, Prince Boleslav V, Duke of Krakow, was the first to grant a charter to the local Jewish community, giving them settlement rights as well as certain religious and financial freedoms.

  3. Jewish Life in Poland Before the Holocaust | Facing History ...

    www.facinghistory.org/resource-library/...

    When Crusaders moved through Europe in the thirteenth century, Jewish refugees sought safety in Poland. The 1264 Statute of Kalisz created legal protections for Jews that were extended by King Kazimierz Wielki, or Casimir the Great, in the early fourteenth century. With these protections, Jewish communities in Poland began to thrive.

  4. Jewish Community of Kalisz: Economy, Politics, Government ...

    encyclopedia.ushmm.org/index.php/content/en/...

    As was the case in Jewish communities throughout Poland, the Kalisz Jewish community founded cooperative credit and banking institutions to assist the impoverished Jewish population. Government. The kehillah, or official governing body for the Jewish community, was dominated by the ultra-Orthodox Agudah political party. It administered the Jewish welfare institutions of Kalisz: old-age home, Talmud Torah (school for poor children), orphanage, Jewish hospital (founded in 1835), and free clinic.

  5. Jewish Life in Europe Before the Holocaust | The Holocaust ...

    encyclopedia.ushmm.org/content/en/article/jewish...

    Jewish Life in Europe before the Holocaust In 1933 the largest Jewish populations were concentrated in eastern Europe, including Poland, the Soviet Union, Hungary, and Romania. Many of the Jews of eastern Europe lived in predominantly Jewish towns or villages, called shtetls .

  6. Timeline of Jewish-Polish history - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_Jewish-Polish...

    1264 Polish Prince Boleslaus the Pious issues Statute of Kalisz – The General Charter of Jewish Liberties in Poland, an unprecedented document in medieval history of Europe that allows Jews personal freedom, legal autonomy and separate tribunal for criminal matters as well as safeguards against forced baptism and blood libel.

  7. A Jewish Street and a Church | Facing History and Ourselves

    www.facinghistory.org/.../jewish-street-and-church

    A Jewish family walking down a street in Kalisz, Poland on May 16, 1935. During the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, as more and more countries lifted age-old restrictions on Jews, many modern Jewish families lived urban lifestyles that were in stark contrast to life in a shtetl.

  8. History of the Jews in Poland before the 18th century - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jewish_Polish_history:...

    Bershadski comes to the conclusion that as early as the 13th century there existed in Poland a number of Jewish communities, the most important of which was that of Kalisz. Early in the 13th century Jews owned land in Polish Silesia, Greater Poland and Kuyavia, including the village of Mały Tyniec.

  9. Poland Virtual Jewish History Tour

    www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/poland-virtual...
    • Early History Through The Middle Ages
    • Colonization of The Ukraine
    • Chmielnicki Revolt & Rise of Hasidism
    • Rise of The Haskalah
    • After World War I
    • The Holocaust
    • Post-World War II & Communist Era
    • Present Day Poland

    There is no specific date that marks Jewish immigration to Poland. A journal account of Ibrahim ibn Jakub, a Jewish traveler, merchant and diplomat from Spain mentions Cracow and the First Duke of Poland, Mieszko I. More Jews arrived during the period of the first Crusade in 1098, while leaving persecution in Bohemia, according to the Chronicler of Prague. There is also archeological evidence, coins from the period with inscriptions in Hebrew, revealing that other Jewish merchants traveled to Poland in the 12th century. The coins may have belonged to 12th century Jewish traders, Holekhei Rusyah(travelers to Russia). While persecution took place across Europe during the Crusades, in the 13thcentury, Poland served as a haven for European Jewry because of its relative tolerance. During this period, Poland began its colonization process. It suffered great losses from Mongol invasions in 1241 and therefore encouraged Jewish immigrants to settle the towns and villages. Immigrants flocked...

    In the 16thcentury, Jews also thrived economically and took part in the settler movement of Poland. In 1569, Poland and Lithuania unified and then Poland annexed the Ukraine. Many Jews were sent to colonize these territories. Polish nobility and landowners and Jewish merchants became partners in many business enterprises. Jews became involved in the wheat export industry, which was in high demand across Europe. The Jews built and ran mills and distilleries, transported the grain to the Baltic Ports and shipped it to the West. In return they received wine, cloth, dyes and luxury goods, which they sold to Polish nobility. The roles of magnates, middleman and intermediaries with the peasants were held by the Jews. Jews created entire villages and townships, shtetls. Fifty-two communities in Great Poland and Masovia, 41 communities in Lesser Poland and about 80 communities in the Ukraine region. From the 16th to 18th century, Jews enjoyed a measure of self-government — the Council of Fo...

    In 1648, a Ukrainian officer Bogdan Chmielnicki, with the support of the Tatar Khan of Crimea, roused the local peasants to fight with him and the Russian Orthodox Cossacks against the Jews. The first wave of violence in 1648 destroyed Jewish communities east of the Dnieper River. Following the violence, thousands of Jews fled west, across the river, to the major cities. The Cossacks and the peasants followed them; the first large-scale massacre took place at Nemirov (a small town, which is part of present-day Ukraine). It is estimated that 100,000-200,000 Jews died in the Chmielnicki revolt that lasted from 1648-1649. This wave of destruction is considered the first modern pogrom. The revolts left much of the Jewish population impoverished. In the 1660's, many Polish Jews became caught up in the fervor and excitement of Shabbetai Zeviand, a century later, Jacob Frank. According to Hasidic tradition, in southeast Poland, in the region of Podolia, Israel ben Eliezer Ba’al Shem Tov (o...

    There were three partitions of Poland in 1772, 1793 and in 1795. Poland was divided among Russia, Prussia and Austria; Poland-Lithuania no longer existed. The majority of Poland’s one-million Jews became part of the Russian empire. Poland became a mere client state of the Russian empire. In 1772, Catherine II, empress of Russia; discriminated against the Jews by forcing them to stay in their shtetls and barring their return to the towns they occupied before the partition. This area was called the Pale of Settlement. By 1885, more than four million Jews lived in the Pale. During this period, the Haskalah (Jewish Enlightenment) spread throughout Poland. Supporters of the Haskalah movement wanted to reform Jewish life and end special institutions and customs. A belief existed that if the Jews assimilated with the Poles, then they would prosper and would not be persecuted. The Haskalah was popular among wealthy Jews, while the shopkeepers and artisans chose to keep speaking Yiddish and...

    In 1918, Poland became a sovereign state. Following Poland’s rebirth, a reign of terror against the Jews began. Jews were massacred in pogroms by Poles who associated Trotsky and the Bolshevik revolution with Jewry (Trotsky was Jewish). The situation was mixed for Polish Jews in the inter-war period. They were recognized as a nationality and their legal rights were supposed to be protected under the Treaty of Versailles; however, their legal rights were not honored by Poland. The Kehillah, a Jewish governing body, was not allowed to run autonomously. The government intervened in the elections and controlled its budget. On the other hand, Jews received funding from the state for their schools. Economic conditions declined for Polish Jews during the inter-war years. Jews were not allowed to work in the civil service, few were public school teachers, almost no Jews were railroad workers and no Jews worked in state-controlled banks or state-run monopolies (i.e. the tobacco industry). Le...

    On September 1, 1939, Germany invaded Poland. The German military killed about 20,000 Jews and bombed approximately 50,000 Jewish-owned factories, workshops and stores in more than 120 Jewish communities. Several hundred synagogues were destroyed in the first two months of occupation. Immediately, restrictions were placed on Polish Jews. All Jewish stores were forced to display a Star of Davidand were subsequently raided and forced to pay large sums of money to the Germans. Jews were not allowed to own bank accounts and there were limits on the amount of cash they could store in their homes. Jews were not allowed in to work in textiles and leather. On July 24, 1939, instructions came from the High Command of the Wehrmacht to intern civilian citizens, which led to the arrest of Jews and Poles of military age at the time of the invasion. Hundreds of civilians, Poles and Jews, were subsequently murdered. Still more Polish Jews were killed by the Einsatzkommando. One week before the inv...

    Eighty-five percent of Polish Jewry perished in the Holocaust. Following the war, many survivors fled to Romania and Germany in hope of reaching Palestine. Those who remained attempted to rebuild Jewish life in the 200 local communities. The American Jewish Joint Distribution Committeeand ORT opened schools and hospitals for the Jewish communities in Poland. Jews were still subject to anti-Semitism and pogroms. The Kielce Pogromin July 1946, in which 40 Jews were killed, was the impetus for another mass emigration. At the end of 1947, only 100,000 Jews remained in Poland. The Soviet Union’s secret police essentially governed the country and Stalin’s anti-Semitic regime stifled Jewish cultural and religious activities. Jewish schools were nationalized in 1948-49 and Yiddishwas no longer used as the language of instruction. Stalin’s death in 1953 eased the situation for the Jews, who then were allowed to reestablish connections with Jewish organizations abroad and began producing Jewi...

    Following the Holocaust when Jewish individuals who fled from Poland attempted to return to their homes and villages they faced a new wave of anti-Semitism and skepticism. Most of these people chose then to go on to Israel, America, or any other country that would have them. Approximately 20,000-25,000 Jews live in Poland today, mainly in Warsaw, but also in Cracow, Lodz, Breslau and other cities. Out of a total population of close to 40 million, the Jews represent at most .06%. Even though the Jewish population is so low and 90% of Polish individuals have never met a Jew according to the coordinator for the Center for Research on Prejudice in Warsaw, Poles still hold anti-Semitic attitudes. According to a 2013 survey 23% of Polish adults expressed traditional anti-Semitism, and this number represents a significant increase since 2009's statistic. The same 2013 survey showed than 60% of Polish adults harbor resentment of Jewish individuals and believe in a global Jewish conspiracy....

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