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  1. Henry V of England - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Henry_V_of_England

    Henry V (16 September 1386 – 31 August 1422), also called Henry of Monmouth, was King of England from 1413 until his death in 1422. Despite his relatively short reign, Henry's outstanding military successes in the Hundred Years' War against France made England one of the strongest military powers in Europe.

  2. Elizabeth II - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Elizabeth_II

    Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of the United Kingdom and 15 other Commonwealth realms. Elizabeth was born in Mayfair, London, as the first child of the Duke and Duchess of York (later King George VI and Queen Elizabeth ). Her father ascended the throne on the abdication of his brother King Edward ...

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  4. Elizabeth of York - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Elizabeth_of_York

    Elizabeth of York (11 February 1466 – 11 February 1503) was Queen of England from her marriage to King Henry VII on 18 January 1486 until her death. Elizabeth married Henry after his victory at the Battle of Bosworth Field, which marked the end of the Wars of the Roses. Together, they had seven children. Elizabeth's younger brothers, the ...

  5. George VI - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › George_VI
    • Early Life
    • Military Career and Education
    • Marriage
    • Reluctant King
    • Early Reign
    • Second World War
    • Empire to Commonwealth
    • Illness and Death
    • Legacy
    • References

    The future George VI was born at York Cottage, on the Sandringham Estate in Norfolk, during the reign of his great-grandmother Queen Victoria. His father was Prince George, Duke of York (later King George V), the second and eldest surviving son of the Prince and Princess of Wales (later King Edward VII and Queen Alexandra). His mother, the Duchess of York (later Queen Mary), was the eldest child and only daughter of Francis, Duke of Teck, and Mary Adelaide, Duchess of Teck. His birthday, 14 December 1895, was the 34th anniversary of the death of his great-grandfather Albert, Prince Consort. Uncertain of how the Prince Consort's widow, Queen Victoria, would take the news of the birth, the Prince of Wales wrote to the Duke of York that the Queen had been "rather distressed". Two days later, he wrote again: "I really think it would gratify her if you yourself proposed the name Albertto her." The Queen was mollified by the proposal to name the new baby Albert, and wrote to the Duchess o...

    From 1909, Albert attended the Royal Naval College, Osborne, as a naval cadet. In 1911 he came bottom of the class in the final examination, but despite this he progressed to the Royal Naval College, Dartmouth.When his grandfather, Edward VII, died in 1910, his father became King George V. Edward became Prince of Wales, with Albert second in line to the throne. Albert spent the first six months of 1913 on the training ship HMS Cumberland in the West Indies and on the east coast of Canada. He was rated as a midshipman aboard HMS Collingwood on 15 September 1913. He spent three months in the Mediterranean, but never overcame his seasickness. Three weeks after the outbreak of World War I he was medically evacuated from the ship to Aberdeen, where his appendix was removed by Sir John Marnoch. He was mentioned in despatches for his actions as a turret officer aboard Collingwood in the Battle of Jutland (31 May – 1 June 1916), the great naval battle of the war. He did not see further comb...

    In a time when royalty were expected to marry fellow royalty, it was unusual that Albert had a great deal of freedom in choosing a prospective wife. An infatuation with the already-married Australian socialite Lady Loughborough came to an end in April 1920 when the King, with the promise of the dukedom of York, persuaded Albert to stop seeing her. That year, he met for the first time since childhood Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon, the youngest daughter of the Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne. He became determined to marry her. She rejected his proposal twice, in 1921 and 1922, reportedly because she was reluctant to make the sacrifices necessary to become a member of the royal family. In the words of her mother Cecilia Bowes-Lyon, Countess of Strathmore and Kinghorne, Albert would be "made or marred" by his choice of wife. After a protracted courtship, Elizabeth agreed to marry him. They were married on 26 April 1923 in Westminster Abbey. Albert's marriage to someone not of royal birth w...

    King George V had severe reservations about Prince Edward, saying "After I am dead, the boy will ruin himself in twelve months" and "I pray God that my eldest son will never marry and that nothing will come between Bertie and Lilibet and the throne." On 20 January 1936, George V died and Edward ascended the throne as King Edward VIII. In the Vigil of the Princes, Prince Albert and his three brothers (the new king, Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester, and Prince George, Duke of Kent) took a shift standing guard over their father's body as it lay in state, in a closed casket, in Westminster Hall. As Edward was unmarried and had no children, Albert was the heir presumptive to the throne. Less than a year later, on 11 December 1936, Edward abdicated in order to marry Wallis Simpson who was divorced from her first husband and divorcing her second. Edward had been advised by British prime minister Stanley Baldwin that he could not remain king and marry a divorced woman with two living ex-hus...

    Albert assumed the regnal name "George VI" to emphasise continuity with his father and restore confidence in the monarchy. The beginning of George VI's reign was taken up by questions surrounding his predecessor and brother, whose titles, style and position were uncertain. He had been introduced as "His Royal Highness Prince Edward" for the abdication broadcast, but George VI felt that by abdicating and renouncing the succession, Edward had lost the right to bear royal titles, including "Royal Highness". In settling the issue, George's first act as king was to confer upon his brother the title "Duke of Windsor" with the style "Royal Highness", but the letters patent creating the dukedom prevented any wife or children from bearing royal styles. George VI was forced to buy from Edward the royal residences of Balmoral Castle and Sandringham House, as these were private properties and did not pass to him automatically. Three days after his accession, on his 41st birthday, he invested hi...

    Following the German invasion of Poland in September 1939, the United Kingdom and the self-governing Dominions other than Ireland declared war on Nazi Germany. George VI and his wife resolved to stay in London, despite German bombing raids. They officially stayed in Buckingham Palace throughout the war, although they usually spent nights at Windsor Castle. The first night of the Blitz on London, on 7 September 1940, killed about one thousand civilians, mostly in the East End. On 13 September, the King and Queen narrowly avoided death when two German bombs exploded in a courtyard at Buckingham Palace while they were there. In defiance, the Queen declared: "I am glad we have been bombed. It makes me feel we can look the East End in the face." The royal family were portrayed as sharing the same dangers and deprivations as the rest of the country. They were subject to British rationing restrictions, and U.S. First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt remarked on the rationed food served and the limit...

    George VI's reign saw the acceleration of the dissolution of the British Empire. The Statute of Westminster 1931 had already acknowledged the evolution of the Dominions into separate sovereign states. The process of transformation from an empire to a voluntary association of independent states, known as the Commonwealth, gathered pace after the Second World War. During the ministry of Clement Attlee, British India became the two independent Dominions of India and Pakistan in August 1947. George relinquished the title of Emperor of India, and became King of India and King of Pakistan instead. In January 1950, he ceased to be King of India when it became a full republic within the Commonwealth and recognised his new title of Head of the Commonwealth; he remained King of Pakistan until his death. Other countries left the Commonwealth, such as Burma in January 1948, Palestine (divided between Israeland the Arab states) in May 1948 and the Republic of Ireland in 1949. In 1947, the King a...

    The stress of the war had taken its toll on the King's health, made worse by his heavy smoking and subsequent development of lung cancer among other ailments, including arteriosclerosis and Buerger's disease. A planned tour of Australia and New Zealand was postponed after the King suffered an arterial blockage in his right leg, which threatened the loss of the leg and was treated with a right lumbar sympathectomy in March 1949. His elder daughter Elizabeth, the heir presumptive, took on more royal duties as her father's health deteriorated. The delayed tour was re-organised, with Elizabeth and her husband, Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, taking the place of the King and Queen. The King was well enough to open the Festival of Britain in May 1951, but on 23 September 1951, he underwent a surgical operation where his entire left lung was removed by Clement Price Thomas after a malignant tumour was found. In October 1951, Elizabeth and Philip went on a month-long tour of Canada; the trip had...

    In the words of Labour Member of Parliament (MP) George Hardie, the abdication crisis of 1936 did "more for republicanism than fifty years of propaganda". George VI wrote to his brother Edward that in the aftermath of the abdication he had reluctantly assumed "a rocking throne" and tried "to make it steady again".He became king at a point when public faith in the monarchy was at a low ebb. During his reign, his people endured the hardships of war, and imperial power was eroded. However, as a dutiful family man and by showing personal courage, he succeeded in restoring the popularity of the monarchy. The George Cross and the George Medal were founded at the King's suggestion during the Second World War to recognise acts of exceptional civilian bravery. He bestowed the George Cross on the entire "island fortress of Malta" in 1943. He was posthumously awarded the Ordre de la Libérationby the French government in 1960, one of only two people (the other being Churchill in 1958) to be awa...

    Sources

    1. Bradford, Sarah (1989). King George VI. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. ISBN 978-0-297-79667-1. 2. Howarth, Patrick (1987). George VI. Hutchinson. ISBN 978-0-09-171000-2. 3. Judd, Denis (1982). King George VI. London: Michael Joseph. ISBN 978-0-7181-2184-6. 4. Matthew, H. C. G. (2004). "George VI (1895–1952)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. 5. Rhodes James, Robert (1998). A Spirit Undaunted: The Political Role of George VI. London: Little, Brown and Co. ISBN 978-0-316-64765-6. 6...

    • 11 December 1936 – 6 February 1952
    • Mary of Teck
  6. Elizabeth Woodville - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Elizabeth_Woodville

    Elizabeth Woodville (also spelled Wydville, Wydeville, or Widvile) (c. 1437 – 8 June 1492) was Queen of England as the wife of King Edward IV from 1464 until his death in 1483. At the time of her birth, her family was of middle rank in the English social hierarchy.

  7. Henry VII of England - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › King_Henry_VII

    Henry VII and Elizabeth had seven children: Arthur (19 September 1486 – 2 April 1502), Prince of Wales , heir apparent from birth to death Margaret (28 November 1489 – 18 October 1541), Queen of Scotland as the wife of James IV and regent for their son James V

    • 22 August 1485 – 21 April 1509
    • Henry VIII
  8. Joan of Navarre, Queen of England - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Joan_of_Navarre,_Queen_of

    Joan of Navarre, also known as Joanna ( c. 1368 – 10 June 1437) was Duchess of Brittany by marriage to Duke John IV and later Queen of England by marriage to King Henry IV. She served as regent of Brittany from 1399 until 1403 during the minority of her son. She also served as regent of England during the absence of her stepson, Henry V, in 1415.

  9. Henry VIII - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    simple.wikipedia.org › wiki › Henry_VIII
    • Early Life
    • Reign
    • Personality

    Henry was born at Greenwich Palace on 28 June 1491, and was the son of Henry VII of England and Elizabeth of York. He was one of their seven children. Four of them survived infancy – Arthur, Prince of Wales; Margaret; Henry; and Mary. He had his own servants and minstrels, including a fool named John Goose. He even had a whipping boy who was punished for Henry when he did something wrong. Prince Henry enjoyed music and joustingwas very good at both of them. At the age of 10, he could play many instruments, including the fife, harp, viola and drums. Henry was a scholar, linguist, musician and athlete at his early age. He could speak fluent Latin, French and Spanish. He had the best tutors and he also had to learn jousting, archery, hunting and other military arts. Henry was very religious. Henry's older brother Arthur was the heir to the throne. This means he would have become the king when Henry VII died. Arthur married a Spanish princess, Catherine of Aragon (her name in Spanish wa...

    Early years

    Three months after becoming king, Henry married Catherine of Aragon. They tried to have children, as Henry wanted a son who could be the next king. In 1511, she gave birth to a son who they named Henry, but he died seven weeks later. She later gave birth to a girl, the future Queen Mary I. All her other children were stillborn (died before birth). He did have one son (Henry Fitzroy) through a woman he was not married to.This son could not become king. Early on, Henry had two of his father's a...

    Split with Rome

    The most important event that happened in England when Henry was the king was the country's change in religion. At first, there was no sign that Henry would do this. Eight years into Henry's reign, the Protestant Reformation began in Germany. Until then, all of Western Europe had been part of the Roman Catholic Church. When the Reformation began, some countries broke away from the Roman Catholic Church to form Protestant churches. At first, Henry was against this. The Reformation did not spre...

    Later marriages

    After his divorce from Catherine of Aragon, Henry VIII married Anne Boleyn, who was younger than Catherine and still able to have children. Henry soon became unhappy with the marriage. He and Anne did not get on well as they had before they married. Anne had many enemies in the government, including Henry's most loyal minister, Thomas Cromwell. Henry was also unhappy that Anne, just like Catherine, only had a daughter and no sons. Henry started looking for another wife. In January 1536, Henry...

    Henry often liked to be captured in his portraits with either food or pets. He had many pets. Henry was often seen with his dog. He owned a white pug and was very aware of how much his dog represented him as a wealthy man. Henry VIII spent a lot of time at a magnificent building named Hampton Court Palace that belonged to his friend, Cardinal Thomas Wolsey. After falling out with Wolsey, Henry took the palace for himself. He made the palace far larger, building things such as tennis courts and jousting yards.

  10. Richard III of England - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Richard_III_of_England

    Richard III (2 October 1452 – 22 August 1485) was King of England and Lord of Ireland from 26 June 1483 until his death in 1485. He was the last king of the House of York and the last of the Plantagenet dynasty. His defeat and death at the Battle of Bosworth Field, the last decisive battle of the Wars of the Roses, marked the end of the ...

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