John II of Portugal Early life. Born in Lisbon, the son of King Afonso V of Portugal by his wife, Isabella of Coimbra, John II succeeded his... Economy. Facing a bankrupt kingdom, John II showed the initiative to solve the situation by creating a regime in which a... Conflict with Castile. When ...
John II, byname The Perfect Prince, Portuguese O Principe Perfeito, (born 1455, Lisbon, Port.—died October 1495, Alvor), king of Portugal from 1481 to 1495, regarded as one of the greatest Portuguese rulers, chiefly because of his ruthless assertion of royal authority over the great nobles and his resumption of the exploration of Africa and the quest for India.
- Early Life
- King of Portugal
- Death of Prince Afonso
John II was born in 1455 to King Afonso V. Descending from King John I, Prince John was a fourth-generation member of the Aviz dynasty. As his father’s only surviving son, the prince became heir apparent upon his birth. During the 1470s, John gained military experience while participating in his father’s African campaign. The king later entrusted the prince with further exploring Africa on Portugal’s behalf.
Upon his accession, King John II had to honor the Treaty of Alcacovas. As part of the agreement, the king placed his son, Afonso, under Spanish guardianship. This acted as a promise for him to one day marry a Castilian. John also had to deal with a powerful Portuguese nobility, especially the Braganzas. Under Afonso V, the house of Braganza had flourished. Due to this, their wealth and influence rivaled the monarchy. Feeling threatened by the nobility, John II called for an assembly in November 1481. During the meeting, the king demanded that his nobles swear an oath of loyalty to him. John made it clear to his nobles that their disobedience wouldn’t be tolerated. Despite the Duke of Braganza swearing his allegiance, the king remained suspicious of him.
After humbling the nobility and regaining Prince Afonso, John II turned his attention towards Africa. During Afonso V’s reign, the king saw Africa as something to be conquered. To this end, Afonso engaged in military campaigns against Morocco. However, John viewed Africa differently. Recognizing its economic potential, the king began funding African explorations. During the 1480s, Portuguese explorers discovered the Congo River and explored southern Africa. Fortresses were also created to maintain Portuguese control. In 1493, Christopher Columbus returned to Europe. When Pope Alexander VI granted Spain all the lands that were discovered, John protested. In response, Spain and Portugal signed the Treaty of Tordesillas. The treaty would unknowingly allow Portugal to claim Brazil in the future.
Throughout John II’s reign, Prince Afonso remained his only legitimate child and heir. The king had high hopes for his son and groomed him to be his successor. However, tragedy struck the royal family in 1491. On July 12, the prince died in a riding accident. Now without an heir, the devastated king faced a succession crisis. Initially, John II considered legitimizing his illegitimate son, Jorge. Having promised the succession originally to his cousin Manuel, the king quickly abandoned Jorge. Despite accepting Manuel, John remained suspicious of him. Manuel’s older brother was the duke of Viseu. After Viseu’s death, Manuel feared being executed too. Fortunately for him, the king spared his cousin’s life.
John II was one of Portugal’s greatest kings. During his reign, John aggressively asserted his authority over the Portuguese nobility. After causing the downfall of the powerful Braganzas and overcoming a conspiracy, the nobility submitted to him. The king also funded and encouraged exploration. Despite the troubling end to his reign, John successfully laid the groundwork for his successors to build on.
Disney, A. R. (2009). A History of Portugal and the Portuguese Empire: From Beginnings to 1807 (Vol. 1). New York City, NY: Cambridge University Press. Livermore, H. (2020, January 01). John II. Retrieved May 01, 2020, from https://www.britannica.com/biography/John-II-king-of-Portugal
King John II John II, byame "The perfect prince", born in 1455, in Lisbon, Portugal and became king at the year of 1481-1495, regarded as one of the greatest Portuguese rulers, chiefly because of his ruthless assertion of royal authority over the great nobles and his resumption of the exploration of Africa and the quest for India.
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King John II of Portugal and the Quest for India G.V. Orange describes how, towards the end of the fifteenth century, Portuguese navigators rounded the Cape of Good Hope. G.V. Orange | Published in History Today Volume 18 Issue 5 May 1968
May 16, 2021 · João II (Portuguese, pronounced [%CA%92u%CB%88%C9%90%CC%83%C5%A9]; English: John II) (March 3, 1455 – October 25, 1495), the Perfect Prince (Port. o Príncipe Perfeito), was the thirteenth king of Portugal and the Algarves. He was born in Lisbon, the son of king Afonso V of Portugal by his wife, Isabel of Coimbra, princess of Portugal.
On 25 October 1495, King John II of Portugal dies at the age of 40. During his reign, John re-established the power of the Portuguese monarchy, reinvigorated...
John II, King of Portugal, 1455-1495 - Details - Social Networks and Archival Context.
When King John II of Portugal died without an heir, the throne of Portugal passed to his cousin, Manuel, Duke of Beja. When King Sebastian of Portugal died, the throne passed to his uncle, Henry of Portugal (he might be called Henry II because Henry, Count of Portugal, father of Alphonso I of Portugal, was the first of that name to rule Portugal).NameLifespanReign startReign endAfonso I The Conqueror; The Great; The ...1106/09/11 – 6 December 1185 (aged ...25 July 11396 December 1185Sancho I The Populator11 November 1154 – 26 March 1211 (aged ...6 December 118526 March 121123 April 1185 – 25 March 1223 (aged ...27 March 121125 March 12238 September 1209 – 4 January 1248 (aged ...26 March 12234 December 1247