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  1. The Polish People's Republic ( Polish: Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa, PRL) was a country in Central Europe that existed from 1947 to 1989 as the predecessor of the modern Republic of Poland. With a population of approximately 37.9 million near the end of its existence, it was the second most-populous communist and Eastern Bloc country in Europe.

  2. 4.1 Konstytucja Polskiej Rzeczypospolitej Ludowej [209] 4.2 Stosunki Państwo-Kościół w latach 1952–1956; 4.3 Początek odwilży; 4.4 Powstanie poznańskie w 1956 r.

    • History
    • Government and Politics
    • Economy
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    • Demographics
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    • Geography
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    • Bibliography

    1945–1956

    At the Yalta Conference in February 1945, Stalin was able to present his western allies, Franklin Roosevelt and Winston Churchill, with a fait accompli in Poland. His armed forces were in occupation of the country, and the communists were in control of its administration. The Soviet Union was in the process of incorporating the lands to the east of the Curzon Line, which it had invaded and occupied between 1939 and 1941. In compensation, Poland was granted German-populated territories in Pome...

    1970s and 1980s

    In 1970, Gomułka's government had decided to adopt massive increases in the prices of basic goods, including food. The resulting widespread violent protests in December that same year resulted in a number of deaths. They also forced another major change in the government, as Gomułka was replaced by Edward Gierek as the new First Secretary. Gierek's plan for recovery was centered on massive borrowing, mainly from the United States and West Germany, to re-equip and modernize Polish industry, an...

    The government and politics of the Polish People's Republic were governed by the Polish United Workers' Party (Polska Zjednoczona Partia Robotnicza, PZPR). Despite the presence of two minor parties, the United People's Party and the Democratic Party, the country was generally reckoned by western nations as a de facto one-party state because these t...

    Early years

    Poland suffered tremendous economic losses during World War II. In 1939, Poland had 35.1 million inhabitants, but the census of 14 February 1946 showed only 23.9 million inhabitants. (The difference was partially the result of the border revision.) The losses in national resources and infrastructure amounted to 38%. Compared to Western European nations, including Germany, Poland was still mostly an agrarian country. The implementation of the immense tasks involved with the reconstruction of t...

    Later years

    During the Gierek era, Poland borrowed large sums from Western creditors in exchange for promise of social and economic reforms. None of these have been delivered due to resistance from the hardline communist leadership as any true reforms would require effectively abandoning the Marxian economy with central planning, state-owned enterprises and state-controlled prices and trade.After the West refused to grant Poland further loans, the living standards began to sharply fall again as the suppl...

    Television and media

    The origins of Polish television date back to the late 1930s, however, the beginning of World War II interrupted further progress at establishing a regularly televised program. The first prime state television corporation, Telewizja Polska, was founded after the war in 1952 and was hailed as a great success by the communist authorities. The foundation date corresponds to the time of the very first regularly televised broadcast which occurred at 07:00 p.m CET on 25 October 1952. Initially, the...

    Cinema

    In November 1945 the newly formed communist government founded the film production and distribution corporation Film Polski, and placed the well-known Polish filmmaker of Jewish descent Aleksander Ford in charge. The Film Polski output was limited; only thirteen features were released between 1947 and its dissolution in 1952, concentrating on Polish suffering at the hands of the Nazis during World War II for propaganda purposes. In 1947, Ford's contribution to film was crucial in establishing...

    Architecture

    The architecture in Poland under the Polish People's Republic had three major phases – short-lived socialist realism, modernism and functionalism. Each of these styles or trends was either imposed by the government or communist doctrine. Under Stalinism in the late 1940s and 1950s, the Eastern Bloc countries adopted socialist realism, an idealized and monumental realistic art intended to promote communist values, such as the emancipation of the proletariat. This style became alternatively kno...

    The experiences in and after World War II, wherein the large ethnic Polish population was decimated, its Jewish minority was annihilated by the Germans, the large German minority was forcibly expelled from the country at the end of the war, along with the loss of the eastern territorieswhich had a significant population of Eastern Orthodox Belarusi...

    Before World War II, a third of Poland's population was composed of ethnic minorities. After the war, however, Poland's minorities were mostly gone, due to the 1945 revision of borders, and the Holocaust. Under the National Repatriation Office (Państwowy Urząd Repatriacyjny), millions of Poles were forced to leave their homes in the eastern Kresy r...

    World War II

    The Polish People's Army (LWP) was initially formed during World War II as the Polish 1st Tadeusz Kościuszko Infantry Division, but more commonly known as the Berling Army. Almost half of the soldiers and recruits in the Polish People's Army were Soviet.In March 1945, Red Army officers accounted for approximately 52% of the entire corps (15,492 out of 29,372). Around 4,600 of them remained by July 1946. It was not the only Polish formation that fought along the Allied side, nor the first one...

    After the war

    Following the Second World War, the Polish Army was reorganized into six (later seven) main military districts: the Warsaw Military District with its headquarters in Warsaw, the Lublin Military District, Kraków Military District, Łódź Military District, Poznań Military District, the Pomeranian Military District with its headquarters in Toruń and the Silesian Military District in Katowice. Throughout the late 1940s and early 50s the Polish Army was under the command of Polish-born Marshal of t...

    Geographically, the Polish People's Republic bordered the Baltic Sea to the North; the Soviet Union (via the Russian (Kaliningrad Oblast), Lithuanian, Byelorussian and Ukrainian SSRs) to the east; Czechoslovakia to the south and East Germany to the west. After World War II, Poland's borders were redrawn, following the decision taken at the Teheran ...

    The Polish People's Republic was divided into several voivodeships (the Polish unit of administrative division). After World War II, the new administrative divisions were based on the pre-war ones. The areas in the East that were not annexed by the Soviet Union had their borders left almost unchanged. Newly acquired territories in the west and nort...

    Ekiert, Grzegorz (March 1997). "Rebellious Poles: Political Crises and Popular Protest Under State Socialism, 1945-89". East European Politics and Societies. American Council of Learned Societies....
    Kuroń, Jacek; Żakowski, Jacek (1995). PRL dla początkujących (in Polish). Wrocław: Wydawnictwo Dolnośląskie. pp. 348 pages. ISBN 83-7023-461-5.
  3. Konstytucja Polskiej Rzeczypospolitej Ludowej z 1952 w art. 90 jako pierwsza określiła Warszawę jako stolicę Polski. Warszawa stała się głównym centrum administracyjnym i politycznym kraju. Odbudowano historyczne Stare i Nowe Miasto, Trakt Królewski oraz wiele obiektów zabytkowych.

  4. plwiki.pl › Leksykon › WarszawaWarszawa - PlWiki

    Konstytucja Polskiej Rzeczypospolitej Ludowej z 1952 w art. 90 jako pierwsza określiła Warszawę jako stolicę Polski. Warszawa stała się głównym centrum administracyjnym i politycznym kraju. Odbudowano historyczne Stare i Nowe Miasto, Trakt Królewski oraz wiele obiektów zabytkowych.

  5. Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej Socjaldemokracja Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej: SdRP Aleksander Kwaśniewski: Socjaldemokracja Progresywizm trzeciej drogi: SI: 1990 1999 Partia powstała po rozwiązaniu PZPR. W 1991 roku utworzyła lewicową koalicję SLD. W tegorocznych wyborach zdobyła 11,99% głosów, zajmując drugie miejsce.

  6. Agencja Wywiadu (AW) (JW 3164) – polska służba specjalna odpowiedzialna za wywiad zagraniczny. Misją AW jest dostarczanie wywiadowczej, wyprzedzającej i ekskluzywnej informacji najważniejszym organom władzy państwowej Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej, które podejmują optymalne decyzje dla interesów państwa i jego obywateli w ciągle zmieniających się uwarunkowaniach międzynarodowych.

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