Korean is spoken by the Korean people in both South Korea and North Korea, and by the Korean diaspora in many countries including the People's Republic of China, the United States, Japan, and Russia. Currently, Korean is the fourth most popular foreign language in China, following English, Japanese, and Russian.
The Korean language is spoken mainly in North and South Korea. It is spoken by more than 78 million people (most are North or South Koreans). In South Korea, it is called hangukmal (한국말) or hangugeo ( Hangeul: 한국어, Hanja: 韓國語). In North Korea, however, it is called choseonmal (조선말) or choseoneo (조선어, 朝鮮語 ...
- Old Korean
- Middle Korean
- Modern Korean
Linguistic history The traditional periodization of Korean distinguishes: Old Korean, the earliest attested stage of the language, through to the fall of Unified Silla. Many authors include the few inscriptions from Silla in the Three Kingdoms period. Authors differ on whether the poorly attested speech of the Goguryeo and Baekje kingdoms and Gaya Confederacy were dialects of Old Korean or separate languages. Middle Korean, corresponding to the Goryeo period, when the capital moved from the sout
Korean and the closely related Jeju language form the compact Koreanic language family. A relation to the Japonic languages is debated but currently not accepted by most linguists. Other theories are the Altaic and Dravido-Korean theory, but both are either discredited or fringe. Homer Hulbert claimed the Korean language was Ural-Altaic in his book The History of Korea. The classification of Korean as Altaic was introduced by Gustaf John Ramstedt, but even within the debunked Altaic hypothesis,
Use of Classical Chinese by Koreans began in the fourth century or earlier, and phonological writing in Idu script was developed by the sixth century. It is unclear whether Old Korean was a tonal language. It is assumed that Old Korean was divided into dialects, corresponding to the three kingdoms. Of these, the Sillan language is the best attested due to the political domination of Later Silla by the seventh century. Only some literary records of Unified Silla, changed into Goryeo text, are ext
The language standard of this period is based on the dialect of Kaesong because Goryeo moved the capital city to the northern area of the Korean Peninsula. The first foreign record of Korean is the Jilin leishi, written in 1103 by a Chinese Song dynasty writer, Sūn Mù 孫穆. It contains several hundred items of Goryeo-era Korean vocabulary with the pronunciation indicated through the use of Chinese characters, and is thus one of the main sources for information on Early Middle Korean ...
Over the decades following the Korean War and the division of Korea, North–South differences in the Korean language have developed, including variances in pronunciation, verb inflection and vocabulary.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Korean language: . The Korean language is an East Asian language spoken by about 80 million people. It is a member of the Koreanic language family and is the official and national language of both Koreas: North Korea and South Korea, with different standardized official forms used in each country.
Korean is the official language of both North and South Korea, and (along with Mandarin) of Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture in the Manchuria area of China. Worldwide, there are up to 80 million speakers of the Korean language. South Korea has around 50 million speakers while North Korea around 25 million.
- Languages among Zainichi Koreans
- Writing system
Zainichi Korean is a variety of Korean as spoken by Zainichi Koreans. The speech is based on the southern dialects of Korean, as the majority of first-generation immigrants came from the southern part of the peninsula, including Gyeonggi-do, Jeolla-do and Jeju-do. Due to isolation from other Korean speech-communities and the influence of Japanese, Zainichi Korean language exhibits strong differences from the standard Korean of either North or South Korea.
The majority of Zainichi Koreans use Japanese in their everyday speech, even among themselves. The Korean language is used only in a limited number of social contexts: towards first-generation immigrants, as well as in Chosŏn Hakkyo,, pro-Pyongyang ethnic schools supported by Chongryon. Since most Zainichi Koreans learn Korean as their second language, they tend to speak it with a heavy Japanese accent. This variety of speech is called Zainichi Korean language, a name which, even when used ...
Zainichi Korean grammar also shows influence from Japanese. Some particles are used differently from the Standard Korean. For instance, "to ride a car" is expressed as chareul tanda in standard Korean, which can be interpreted as "car- ride". In Zainichi Korean, the same idea is expressed as cha-e tanda, just like Japanese kuruma ni noru. Standard Korean distinguishes hae itda and hago itda. For instance, "to be sitting" is anja itda, not ango itda', as the latter would mean "being in the middle
Zainichi Korean is not typically written; standard Korean is used as the literary language. For example, a speaker who pronounces the word geureona as gurona, will still spell the word in the former form. In much the same way, Standard Korean speakers retain the grapheme difference between ae ㅐ and e ㅔ, even though they may pronounce the two identically.