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  1. Koreans in the Arab world used to form a major part of the worldwide Korean diaspora. Koreans started coming to the Arab world in large numbers in early 1970s as migrant labourers; between 1975 and 1985, 1.1 million Koreans came for work, which made it the third-most popular destination for Korean emigrants.

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  2. en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Korean_people_in_ChinaKoreans in China - Wikipedia

    • Terminology
    • History
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    • North Koreans
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    The South Korean media of the 1990s referred to Koreans in China as jungguk-in (Korean: 중국인; Hanja: 中國人, "Chinese people"). Government regulations in 2004 mandated the use of the term jaeoe dongpo (Korean: 재외동포; Hanja: 在外同胞, "compatriots who live abroad"). Similarly friendly terms include hanguk gye jungguk-in (Korean: 한국계 중국인; Hanja: 韓國系中國人; "Chinese people of Korean descent") or jungguk dongpo (Korean: 중국동포; Hanja: 中國同胞, compatriots in China). However, the c Korea is joseon-jok (Korean: 조선족; Hanja: 朝鮮族, "Joseon person"), which Koreans from China criticized for being a less amicable term than those for other overseas Koreans like Korean Americans (jaemi gyopo, 在美僑胞 "compatriots in America") or Koreans in Japan (jaeil gyopo, 在日僑胞 "compatriots in Japan").

    Due to the proximity of borders between China and the Korean Peninsula, population migration of some kind had often occurred throughout history. However, most early ethnic Koreans in China had been assimilated by the Han Chinese, Manchus and Mongols, respectively.:2:75-77 Thus, the overwhelming majority of today's ethnic Korean population in China are descendants of relatively recent late Qing dynasty Korean emigrants.:48

    Education

    Koreans in China have a tradition of education. The education level of Koreans in China is above China's national average and one of the highest among ethnic groups in China. The Chinese government is also very supportive in reserving their language and culture. Korean schools from kindergarten to higher education are allowed to teach in Korean language in Yanbian. Yanbian University located in Yanji city is a comprehensive university offering bachelor to doctoral degrees. The university is o...

    Religion

    The majority of ethnic Koreans in China have no formal affiliations with a religion. Major religions among ethnic Koreans in China include Buddhism and Christianity(saying mass in Korean).

    Public Media

    Most ethnic Koreans in China speak Mandarin Chinese and many also speak fluent Korean as their mother tongue. Many Chinese of Korean descent have ancestral roots and family ties in the Hamgyong region of North Korea and speak the Hamgyŏng dialect of Korean according to North Korean conventions. However, since South Korea has been more prolific in exporting its entertainment culture, more Korean Chinese broadcasters have been using Seoul dialect. The so-called Korean Wave (Hallyu) has influenc...

    China has a large number of North Korean refugees, estimated in the tens of thousands. Some North Korean refugees who are unable to obtain transport to South Korea instead marry chaoxianzuand settle down in China, blending into the community; however, they are still subject to deportation if discovered by the authorities. As of 2011[update], there are an estimated 4,000 to 5,000 North Koreans residing as legal resident aliens in China. An increasing number are applying for naturalization as Chinese citizens; this requires a certificate of loss of North Korean nationality, which North Korean authorities have recently become more reluctant to issue. Major North Korean universities, such as the Kim Il-sung University and the Pyongyang University of Foreign Studies, send a few dozen exchange students to Peking Universityand other top-ranked Chinese universities each year. In June 2012, the Los Angeles Times reported that Beijing and Pyongyang had signed an agreement to grant as many as...

    After the 1992 normalization of diplomatic relations between the PRC and South Korea, many citizens of South Korea started to settle in Mainland China; large new communities of South Koreans have subsequenrly formed in Beijing, Shanghai, Dalian and Qingdao. The South Korean government officially recognizes seven Korean international schools in China (in Yanbian, Beijing, Shanghai, Tianjin, Yantai, Qingdao, and Dalian, respectively), all founded between 1997 and 2003. Most of the population of Koreans in Hong Kong consists of South Korea expatriates.[citation needed] Typically, they come to China as employees of South Korean corporations on short-term international assignments; when their assignments are completed, many prefer to stay on in China, using the contacts they have made to start their own consulting businesses or import/export firms. Other South Koreans moved to China on their own after becoming unemployed during the 1997 financial crisis; they used funds they had saved up...

    Shenzhen

    As of 2007[update] there were about 20,000 people of Korean origins in Shenzhen, with the Nanshan and Futian districts having significant numbers. That year the chairperson of the Korean Chamber of Commerce and Industry, Kang Hee-bang, stated that about 10,000 lived in Overseas Chinese Town (OCT). Shekou, the area around Shenzhen University, and Donghai Garden housing estate had other significant concentrations. Donghai Garden began attracting Koreans due to its transportation links and becau...

    Historical figures

    1. Kim Gyo-gak, the Ksitigarbha at Mount Jiuhua 2. Kim Ho-shang, Korean Ch'an master who introduced the first streams of Ch'an Buddhism to Tibet 3. Senglang (僧朗, in Korean Sungnang), 6th century Goguryeo monk who went to China; his works heavily influenced Jizang and Zhouyoungand the Sanlun school. 4. Gao Xianzhi, a Tang general of Korean Goguryeodescent 5. Gao Yun, Emperor of Later Yan and Northern Yan of Goguryeodescent 6. Li Zhengji, general of the Tang dynasty 7. Li Na, general of the Tan...

    Contemporary Chaoxianzu/Joseonjok

    1. Jiang Jingshan (姜景山; Korean:강경산), Aerospace scientist, academician of the Chinese Academy of Engineering 2. Jin Hongguang (金紅光; Korean:김홍광), Physical Chemist, academician of the Chinese Academy of Sciences 3. Jin Ningyi (金宁一; Korean:김녕일), Virologist, academician of the Chinese Academy of Engineering 4. Jin Xianzhai (金显宅; Korean:김현택), Oncologist, known as "The Father of Chinese Oncology" 5. Gong Hyeon-U (孔铉佑), Vice Minister of foreign affairs of China and Special Representative of the Chine...

    Expatriates of other nationalities and their descendants

    1. Kwon Ki-ok, first female pilot in China 2. Pak Cholsu(박철수), head representative of the North Korean government-run company, Taep'oong International Investment Group of Korea (조선대풍국제투자그룹) 3. Howie Liu, American-born CEO of Airtable

    • Cultural Significance
    • Growth of Christianity
    • Political and Social Issues
    • Pope Francis' Visit
    • Notable Korean Christians
    • See Also
    • External Links

    Professor James H. Grayson from the School of East Asian Studies at University of Sheffield states that Protestantism has been a dynamic force in Korean life, and had a positive influence on other religions. Catholics and Buddhists had to compete for loyalty and attention, and it inspired numerous smaller sects. They adopted many of the methods pioneered by the Protestants. The influence on higher education in Korea has been decisive as the Christians started 293 schools and 40 universities including 3 of the top 5 academic institution.Sukman argues that since 1945, Catholicism and Protestantism has been widely seen by Koreans as the religion of the middle class, youth, intellectuals, urbanites, and modernizers. It has been a powerful force supporting South Korea's pursuit of modernity and westernization, and opposition to the old Japanese colonialism and Communism of North Korea. Prior to the Korean War (1950–1953), two-thirds of Korean Christians lived in the North, but most later...

    Appeal in the North

    Christianity, especially Catholicism and Protestantism, had a special appeal to Koreans in the North. Between 1440 and 1560, there were migrations to the northern provinces, which were designed to strengthen the border. This created a society of mixed backgrounds without an aristocracy and without long-standing religious institutions. However, it did have a strong and ambitious merchant class, as well as a strong military tradition. Local elites gained administrative positions and adopted Con...

    Academic sympathy

    Matteo Ricci's books, which he created to use Chinese ideograms and concepts to introduce Catholicism, provoked academic controversy when Yi Gwang-jeong brought them into Korea. Academics remained critical of the new thought for many years. Early in the 17th century, Yi Su-gwang, a court scholar, and Yu Mong-in, a cabinet minister, wrote highly critical commentaries on Ricci's works. During the next two centuries, academic criticism of Catholic beliefs continued, as it overturned Confucian ve...

    Lay leadership

    As a result of the influence of the Silhak school, Catholicism in Korea began as an indigenous lay movement rather than being imposed by a foreign missionaries. The first Catholic prayer-house was founded in 1784 at Seoul by Yi Seung-hun, a diplomat who had been baptized in Beijing. In 1786, Yi proceeded to establish a hierarchy of lay-priests. Although the Vatican ruled in 1789 that the appointment of lay-priests violated Canon law, in Korea indigenous lay-workers rather than foreign prelate...

    There have been various political and social criticisms in the Korean Christian scene since President Lee Myung-bak came into power. The South Korean government proposed to restrict South Korean citizens working for missionary works in the Middle East. Professor Son Bong-ho of Goshin University criticized the president for partaking in a national-level Christian prayers' gathering on March 2011 that signaled a potential danger of the strong Protestant influence in the secular South Korean politics.Increasing acts of hostility by Protestant Christians against Buddhism, have drawn strong criticism and backlash against Protestant churches by the South Korean public and has contributed in Protestantism's growing decline in Korea.

    Pope Francis accepted an invitation to visit South Korea in August 2014. The four-day visit (14–18 August) culminated with a Papal Mass at Myeongdong Cathedral, the seat of the Archdiocese of Seoul on 18 August. During a mass on 16 August, the Pope beatified 124 Korean Catholic martyrs. An invitation for North Korea's Catholics to attend was declined, due to South Korea's refusal to withdraw from military exercises which it had planned with the United States.[citation needed]

    Politicians

    1. Syngman Rhee- Methodist; ROK President, 1948-1960 2. Chang Myon- Roman Catholic; ROK Prime Minister, 1950-1952, 1960-1961; ROK Vice President, 1956-1960 3. Yun Posun- Presbyterian; Mayor of Seoul, 1948-1949; ROK President, 1960-1962 4. Kim Young-SamPresbyterian; ROK President, 1993-1998 5. Kim Dae-JungRoman Catholic; Member of the ROK National Assembly, 1961, 1963-1972, 1988-1992; ROK President, 1998-2003 6. Roh Moo-hyun nominally Roman Catholic;Member of the ROK National Assembly, 1988-19...

    • History
    • Organization
    • Personnel
    • Ranks and Uniforms
    • Defections
    • See Also
    • External Links

    Kim Il-sung set up the Aviation Association branches in Pyongyang, Sinuiju, Chongjin and other parts of the country in 1945. In December 1945 he merged them into the Aviation Association of Korea. The air force became a separate service in 1948. The KPAF incorporates much of the original Soviet air tactics, as well as North Korean experience from the UN bombings during the Korean War. The KPAF has on occasion deployed abroad. It deployed a fighter squadron to North Vietnam during the Vietnam war.Kim Il-Sung reportedly told the North Korean pilots "to fight in the war as if the Vietnamese sky were their own." On April 15, 1969, MiG-21s of the KPAF shot down a Lockheed EC-121 Warning Starin international waters, in the Sea of Japan. In 1973, a North Korean flight of MiG-21s deployed to Bir Arida to help defend southern Egypt during the Yom Kippur War. In 1990-91, North Korea activated four forward air bases near the Korean Demilitarized Zone(DMZ).

    Capabilities

    The KPAF operates a wide range of fighter and attack aircraft. North Korea is one of the few nations still operating the obsolete MiG-17, MiG-19, MiG-21 and MiG-23 fighters, yet it operates more modern and fairly capable MiG-29 fighters. The KPAF's most numerous fighter is the MiG-21, which is somewhat obsolete but still a worthy foe in air-to-air combat, if maintained properly and crewed by experienced pilots. An assessment by US analysts GlobalSecurity.org reported that the air force "has a...

    Operational doctrine

    Given North Korea's experience with heavy U.S. bombardments in the Korean War, its aim has been mainly to defend North Korean airspace. The heavy reliance on fighter aircraft, Surface-to-air missile and Anti-aircraft warfare reflects this. However, since nearly all of North Korea's aircraft inventory consists of aging and obsolete Soviet and Chinese aircraft, the primary goal of the air force may have changed in the last years to providing ground support for the land forces and threatening So...

    From 1978 to 1995, General Jo Myong-rok was the commander of the air force. In October 1995, he was promoted to vice-marshal and appointed Chief of the KPA General Political Bureau and a member of the Korean Workers' Party Central Military Committee. His place as commander of the Air Force was taken by Colonel General Oh Gum-chol.

    Ranks

    The Korean People's Air Force has five categories of ranks; general officers, senior officers, junior officers, Non-commissioned Officers, and airmen.

    Uniforms

    Generally as a separate service in the KPA, the service wears the same KPA uniforms but with air force blue peaked caps (especially for officers) or kepi-styled caps for men and berets for women, worn with their full dress uniforms. Pilots wear helmets and flight suits when on parade and when in flight duty while air defense personnel wear the same duty dress uniforms as their ground forces counterparts but with air force blue borders on the caps.

    Due to the political condition of North Korea, several North Korean pilots from the KPAF defected with their jets. These incidents include: 1. On September 21, 1953, 21-year-old No Kum-sok, a senior lieutenant, flew his MiG-15 across to the South and landed at Kimpo Air Basenear Seoul. Considered an intelligence bonanza, since this fighter plane was then the best the Communist bloc had. No was awarded the sum of $100,000 ($733,813 in 2006 dollars) and the right to reside in the United States. He is now a U.S. citizen. 2. On August 5, 1960, a Shenyang J-5landed at Kimpo, the second time a J-5 appeared in South Korea. This aircraft was kept by South Korea and was briefly flown in South Korean markings before being scrapped. 3. In February 1983, Lee Ung-Pyong used a training exercise to defect and landed his Shenyang J-6 at an airfield in Seoul. According to the then common practice, he received a commission in the South Korean Air Force eventually becoming a coloneland taught at the S...

    Air Koryo
    Jebi Sports Group, football club of the KPAF
  3. Jun 28, 2015 · User:Denelson83. From Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository ... Paraguay (reverse) Saint-Pierre and Miquelon ... Korean People's Army Kurdistan Midway Islands ...

  4. This article is a list of various states' armed forces ranking designations. Comparisons are made between the different systems used by nations to categorize the hierarchy of an armed force compared to another.

  5. The General Staff Department (GSD) of the Korean People's Army (KPA) is the senior military leadership of the armed forces of North Korea responsible for its administrative, operational and logistical needs. The current Chief of the General Staff is Ri Myong-su, (he is also commander-in-chief of KPA Ground Force) who was appointed to the post in February 2016 after the removal of his ...

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