Serialism definition is - serial music; also : the theory or practice of composing serial music.
Sergei Sergeyevich Prokofiev (/ p r ə ˈ k ɒ f i ɛ f, p r oʊ-,-ˈ k ɔː-,-ˈ k oʊ-,-j ɛ f,-j ɛ v,-i ə f /; Russian: Серге́й Серге́евич Проко́фьев, tr. Sergej Sergejevič Prokofjev listen (help · info); 27 April [O.S. 15 April] 1891 – 5 March 1953) was a Russian Soviet composer, pianist and conductor.
Merriam-Webster 1998, Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary, 10th edn (Springfield: Merriam-Webster) Google Scholar  Lemprière, J. 1984, Lemprière’s Classical Dictionary (London: Bracken Books) Google Scholar
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A number of recent papers have demonstrated the advantages of using a phonological model incorporating the timing and magnitude of articulatory gestures to account for alternations involving ...
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^ Only the pronunciation / v i ˈ oʊ l ə / (vee-OH-lə) is used in US English, as shown by the entries in the American Heritage Dictionary and the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary, but both this pronunciation and / v aɪ ˈ oʊ l ə / (vy-OH-lə) are used in UK English, as shown by the entries in the Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary ...
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Santiago de Cali (Spanish pronunciation: [sanˈtjaɣo ðe ˈkali]), simply referred to as Cali, is a city in western Colombia and the capital of the Valle del Cauca Department. With a population of 2.5 million, Cali is the third largest city in the country, after Bogotá and Medellín. It has one of the fastest growing economies and ...
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- Form of The Viola
- Playing The Viola
- Viola Organizations and Research
- Viola Music
- Viola in Popular Music
- Electric Violas
- See Also
The viola is similar in material and construction to the violin but is larger in size and more variable in its proportions. A "full-size" viola's body is between one and four inches longer than the body of a full-size violin (i.e., between 15 and 18 inches (38 and 46 cm)), with an average length of about 16 inches (41 cm). Small violas made for children typically start at 12 inches (30 cm), which is equivalent to a half-size violin. Often, a fractional-sized violin will be strung with the strings of a viola (C, G, D and A) for those children who need even smaller sizes. Unlike the violin, the viola does not have a standard full size. The body of a viola would need to measure about 21 inches (53 cm) long to match the acoustics of a violin, making it impractical to play in the same manner as the violin. For centuries, viola makers have experimented with the size and shape of the viola, often tweaking the proportions or shape of the instrument to make an instrument with a shorter...
A person who plays the viola is called a violist or simply a viola player. While it is similar to the violin, the technique required for playing viola has many differences. The difference in size accounts for some of the technical differences, as notes are spread out farther along the fingerboard often requiring different fingerings. The less responsive strings and heavier bow warrant a somewhat different bowing technique. The viola requires the player to lean more intensely on the strings compared to the violin. 1. Compared to violin, the viola will generally have a larger body as well as a longer string length, which is why younger violists or even some old tend to get smaller sized violas for easier playing. The most immediately noticeable adjustments a player accustomed to playing violin has to make are to use wider-spaced fingerings. It is common for some players to use a wider and more intense vibrato in the left hand facilitated by employing the fleshier pad of the finger rat...
The viola's four strings are normally tuned in fifths: C3 (an octave below middle C) is the lowest, with G3, D4 and A4 above it. This tuning is exactly one fifth below the violin, so that they have three strings in common—G, D, and A—and is one octave above the cello. Although the violin and viola have three strings tuned the same, the tone quality or sound color is markedly different. Violas are tuned by turning the pegs near the scroll, which the strings are wrapped around. Tightening the string raises the pitch; loosening the string lowers the pitch. The A string is normally tuned first, typically to 440 Hz or 442 Hz (see pitch). The other strings are then tuned to it in intervals of perfect fifths, bowing two strings simultaneously. Most violas also have adjusters (also called fine tuners) that are used to make finer changes. These permit the tension of the string to be adjusted by rotating a small knob at the opposite end of the string, at the tailpiece. Such tuning is generall...
A renewal of interest in the viola by performers and composers in the twentieth century also led to increased research devoted to the instrument. Paul Hindemith and Vadim Borisovsky made an early attempt at an organization in 1927 with the Violists' World Union. But it was not until 1968 with the creation of the Viola-Forschungsgellschaft, now the International Viola Society (IVS), that a lasting organization would take hold. The IVS now consists of twelve sections around the world, the largest being the American Viola Society (AVS), which publishes the Journal of the American Viola Society. In addition to the journal, the AVS sponsors the David Dalton Research Competition and the Primrose International Viola Competition. The 1960s also saw the beginning of several research publications aimed at the viola, beginning with Franz Zeyringer's Literatur für Viola, which has undergone several versions, the most recent in 1985. Maurice Riley produced the first attempt at a comprehensive hi...
Sheet music written for the viola differs from that of other instruments in that it primarily uses alto clef(sometimes called "viola clef"), which is otherwise rarely used. Viola sheet music also employs the treble clef when there are substantial sections of music written in higher registers. The note A4 is above the top line of the clef, D4 is in the second space down, G3 is in the space at the bottom of the staff, and C3 is two spaces under the staff.
Role of the viola in pre-twentieth century works
In early orchestral music, the viola part was frequently limited to the filling in of harmonies with little melodic material assigned to it. When the viola was given melodic parts in music of that era, it was often duplication in unison or octaves of whatever other strings played. A notable exception is J.S. Bach's Brandenburg Concerto No. 6, which placed the two violas in the primary melodic role (it was scored for 2 violas, cello, 2 violas da gamba, and continuo). An example of a piece writ...
Twentieth century and beyond
In the earlier part of the 20th century, more composers began to write for the viola, encouraged by the emergence of specialized soloists such as Lionel Tertis. Englishmen Arthur Bliss, York Bowen, Benjamin Dale, and Ralph Vaughan Williams all wrote chamber and concert works for Tertis. William Walton, Bohuslav Martinů and Béla Bartók wrote well-known viola concertos. One of the few composers to write a substantial amount of music for the viola was Paul Hindemith; being himself a violist, he...
The term "violist" is not used universally in English; "viola player" is in common usage in British English, as the word "violist" is used to mean "player of the viol". There are few truly well-known viola virtuosi, perhaps because little virtuoso viola music was written before the twentieth century. Pre-twentieth century viola players of note include Alessandro Rolla, Antonio Rolla, Chrétien Urhan, Casimir Ney, Louis van Waefelghem, and Hermann Ritter. The most important viola pioneers from the twentieth century were Lionel Tertis, William Primrose, Paul Hindemith, Théophile Laforge, Cecil Aronowitz, Maurice Vieux, Vadim Borisovsky, Lillian Fuchs, Frederick Riddle, Walter Trampler, Ernst Wallfisch, and Emanuel Vardi, the first violist to record the 24 Caprices by Paganini on viola. Many noted violinists have publicly performed and recorded on the viola as well, among them Eugène Ysaÿe, Yehudi Menuhin, David Oistrakh, Pinchas Zukerman, Maxim Vengerov, Julian Rachlin and Nigel Kenned...
The viola sees limited use in popular music. It was sometimes part of popular dance orchestras in the period from about 1890 to 1930, and orchestrations of pop tunes from that era often had viola parts available. The viola largely disappeared from pop music at the start of the big bandera. With the Charlie Daniels Band, Charlie Daniels has played viola instead of violin for some of the fiddling "Redneck Fiddlin' Man." John Cale, a classically trained violist, played the instrument to great effect (amplified and often distorted) on some Velvet Underground tracks, most notably on "Venus in Furs", "Heroin", "The Black Angel's Death Song", "Stephanie Says", and "Hey Mr. Rain". He also played viola on "We Will Fall," a track on the debut Stooges album, which he also produced. Producer and songwriter Don Kayvan is a classically trained violist and regularly uses the viola on rap, r&b, alternative and pop songs. Singer-songwriter Patrick Wolfis a trained violinist and viola player, and reg...
Amplification and equalization can make up for the weaker output of a violin string tuned to notes below G3, so most electric instruments with lower strings are violin-sized, and as such, are called "violins." Comparatively fewer electric violas do exist, for those who prefer the physical size or familiar touch references of a viola-sized instrument. Welsh musician John Cale, formerly of The Velvet Underground, is one of the more famous users of such an electric viola, who has used them both for melodies in his solo work and for drones in his work with The Velvet Underground (e.g. "Venus in Furs"). Instruments may be built with an internal preamplifier, or may put out the unbuffered transducer signal. While such raw signals may be fed directly to an amplifier or mixing board, they often benefit from an external preamp/equalizer on the end of a short cable, before being fed to the sound system.Dalton, David. "The Viola & Violists." Primrose International Viola Archive. Retrieved October 8, 2006Chapman, Eric. "Joseph Curtin and the Evia". Journal of the American Viola Society, Vol.20, No.1, Spring 2004, pp. 41–42.Curtin, Joseph. "Otto Erdesz Remembered". The Strad, November 2000. Retrieved July 30, 2006Curtin, Joseph. "Project Evia" (Retrieved October 8, 2006). American Lutherie Journal, No. 60, Winter 1999.
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