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  1. Lebanese Arabic - Wikipedia

    Lebanese Arabic is believed to be a descendant of the Arabic dialects introduced to the Levant in the 7th century CE, which gradually supplanted various indigenous Northwest Semitic languages to become the regional lingua franca.

    • 5.77 million (2017)
    • Lebanon
  2. Help:IPA/Lebanese Arabic - Wikipedia

    This is the pronunciation key for IPA transcriptions of Lebanese Arabic on Wikipedia. It provides a set of symbols to represent the pronunciation of Lebanese Arabic in Wikipedia articles, and example words that illustrate the sounds that correspond to them.

    English approximation
    Arabic letter/symbol
    emphatic /d/, no equivalent
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  4. Lebanon - Wikipedia

    The official language, Arabic, is the most common language spoken by the citizens of Lebanon. The earliest evidence of civilization in Lebanon dates back more than seven thousand years, predating recorded history. Lebanon was home to the Phoenicians, a maritime culture that flourished for almost three thousand years (c. 3200–539 BC).

  5. Lebanese people - Wikipedia

    However, since at least the 15th century, the majority of people of all faiths living in what is now Lebanon have been Arabic-speaking, or more specifically, speakers of Lebanese Arabic, although up until the 20th century, travellers in the Lebanon still reported on several Aramaic-speaking villages.

    • 50,000
    • 80,000
    • 7,000
    • 10,459
  6. Talk:Lebanese Arabic - Wikipedia

    I will give the editors of "Lebanese Arabic" one month to explain what "Lebanese arabic" is and use reliable sources to stabilize the article, then I will start by first editing the name of the article and then use more verified content. Wikipedia articles should be based on scientific/historical facts built upon reliable and verified sources.

  7. Lebanese Arab Army - Wikipedia

    The Lebanese Arab Army – LAA (Arabic: جيش لبنان العربي transliteration Jayish Lubnan al-Arabi), also known as the Arab Army of Lebanon (AAL), Arab Lebanese Army or Armée du Liban Arabe (ALA) in French, was a predominantly Muslim splinter faction of the Lebanese Army that came to play a key role in the 1975–77 phase of the Lebanese Civil War.

  8. Lebanese Americans - Wikipedia

    Lebanese Americans have had a significant participation in American politics and have had involvement in both social and political activism. The diversity within the region sprouted from the diaspora of the surrounding countries. There are more Lebanese outside Lebanon today than within.

  9. Lebanese Maronite Christians - Wikipedia

    Lebanese Maronite Christians (Arabic: المسيحية المارونية في لبنان ‎, Classical Syriac: ܡܫܝܚܝ̈ܐ ܡܪ̈ܘܢܝܐ ܕܠܒܢܢ ‎) refers to Lebanese people who are adherents of the Maronite Church in Lebanon, which is the largest Christian denomination in the country.

  10. Lebanese |
    • Introduction
    • Location and Homeland
    • Language
    • Folklore
    • Religion
    • Major Holidays
    • Rites of Passage
    • Interpersonal Relations
    • Living Conditions
    • Family Life
    • Clothing
    • Food
    • Education
    • Cultural Heritage
    • Work
    • Sports
    • Entertainment and Recreation
    • Folk Art, Crafts, and Hobbies
    • Social Problems
    • Gender Issues
    • Bibliography

    Lebanon is a small country on the east coast of the Mediterranean Sea. Throughout its history, Lebanon has been the stage for conflicts between city-states, world powers, and local tribespeople. Located in what is known as the Fertile Crescent (a curved band of green, fertile lands along the eastern Mediterranean coast, bordered by the Arabian and African deserts) and at the juncture of three continents—Africa, Asia, and Europe—Lebanon is a valuable and highly desired territory.Historically,...

    Lebanon is a tiny country, with an area of only a little more than 10,400 sq km (4,000 sq mi)—about the size of the state of Connecticut. It lies on the east coast of the Mediterranean Sea, north of Israel, south of Turkey, south and west of Syria, and southeast of Cyprus. Although it is only about 200 km (124 mi) from north to south and averages only 50 km (30 mi) east to west, Lebanon has two mountain ranges (Mount Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon), a coastal strip, an inland plain, dozens of river...

    The first language spoken in the area that is now Lebanon was Canaanite. Since then, the common languages have been, in succession, Aramaic, Greek, Latin, Arabic, and French during the French mandate years. Upon independence, Arabic became the official language, but many Lebanese also speak English, and some still consider French to be the more \\"sophisticated\\" language. Armenians who live in Lebanon speak Arabic as well as Armenian and Turkish. It is not uncommon for Lebanese to speak three o...

    One of the most popular characters in Arab folklore is Jeha the Fool, who figures in many stories, from teaching tales to purely humorous anecdotes. Also popular are the real-life lovers, Ablah and Antar. Antar was a 6th century Arab who was born a slave but became a heroic warrior. He was also a poet (poetry is considered the highest art in Arab culture). Antar fell in love with Ablah, the daughter of the chief, and she fell in love with him; but, of course, a slave could not marry the chief...

    The original inhabitants of the land now called Lebanon were worshipers of the fertility goddess known as Asherah, Astarte, or Anat. Christianity arrived during the Byzantine Roman era (ad 4–636), and its followers in Lebanon have since become divided into a variety of sects including Maronite, Roman Catholic, Greek Catholic, Greek Orthodox, Armenian Catholic, Armenian Orthodox, and Protestant. The Islamic revolution of the 7th century ad took hold in the land of Lebanon as in other Arab coun...

    The Lebanese love a good party, so they all celebrate all of the holy days—both Christian (including Greek Orthodox who have different dates for the festivals than other Christians) and Muslim—plus a couple of secular public holidays. Islam uses a lunar calendar, so Muslim holidays occur on a different date of the Gregorian calendar each year. The major Muslim holidays are Ramadan, the ninth month of the Muslim year, during which Muhammad received his first revelations, celebrated by complete...

    Most Lebanese mark major life events, such as birth, marriage, and death, within the Islamic or Christian religious traditions. Regardless of religion, Lebanese parents celebrate the birth of a child by cooking meghli (a spiced rice pudding, topped with nuts and coconut). The family serves the sweet dish to visitors who come to the household to congratulate the family. At birth, it is common to bring gifts of clothing and gold for the new baby. Boys born to Muslim and Druze families are circu...

    Most Lebanese people are very hospitable, generous, and polite, although Arab politeness sometimes means saying what one thinks the other person wants to hear. Most Lebanese will greet each other with handshakes and will inquire about a person's family and health. Formal titles, such as \\"Dr.\\" or \\"professor\\" are used when appropriate.The Lebanese lifestyle is relaxed, but by no means lazy. The Lebanese are typically entrepreneurs; men and women have a \\"get ahead\\" attitude and lots of ambition...

    Lebanon has been rebuilding its economic infrastructure by borrowing heavily from banks. The rebuilding effort has drawn many Lebanese to cities such as Beirut, Tripoli, and Sidon, where educational and employment opportunities abound. Most of those who live in cities reside in apartments in concrete buildings. Free standing houses are rare. Electricity remains unreliable, and water often is scarce. Many families have access to water for only a few hours per day, so they pump enough for their...

    Strong family ties are the rule in Lebanon. Most businesses are family-owned and run, and the revenue sent back by family members working abroad has kept the Lebanese economy afloat during the difficult war years. That revenue reached $5.5 billion in 2007 and has increased steadily each year, according to the World Bank. City dwellers in Lebanon have a fairly Western lifestyle, although with a very high cost of living. Most city families are small, averaging two children each. Children are ch...

    Western-style fashions are popular in Lebanon's cities. Urban women are very fashion-conscious and want to wear the latest styles from the West. More traditional clothes are still worn in some villages. Women wear long dresses for and men wear black pants and jackets. Men's pants are full and baggy from the waist to the knee and tightly fitted from the knee to the ankle. Their jackets have fancy, brightly colored, embroidered trim. Traditionally, Lebanese men wore a short, rounded, cone-shape...

    Lunch is the big meal in Lebanon, and almost everything is eaten with bread. Two types of unleavened Lebanese bread are khub, which resembles pita bread, and marqouq, which is paper thin. Lebanese do not eat fish and dairy in the same meal, and restaurants do not serve sweets. The usual dessert in a Lebanese restaurant is fawakeh, a huge bowl of whatever fresh fruit is in season. Mezze are widespread in the Middle East, including Lebanon; the closest Western equivalent is appetizers, though t...

    Lebanon's educational system is still undergoing reconstruction following the civil war. Education is highly valued in Lebanon, so parents send their children to private schools when they can afford to do so. Schools usually teach a combination of Lebanese, French, and U.S. curricula, and all children are required to attend at least eight years of school. Lebanon's literacy rate was 87.4% in 2003, a significant improvement from 75% in the mid-1990s. Children are strongly encouraged to prepare...

    Lebanon was known as a center for Arabic culture before the civil war. The country is slowly regaining that reputation. Each year, international artists gather at the Baalbek International Festival (popularized by the Lebanese superstar Fairuz), at the ruins of Roman temples in the Bekaa Valley.Lebanon also has long been known for its high-quality book publishing, and a flourishing film industry produces high-quality films. There is some serious dramatic theater, but most of the energy in the...

    Lebanon traditionally has had a higher proportion of skilled labor than other Arab countries, but the civil war caused many of those skilled workers to seek better opportunities abroad. Those who have remained in the country often have difficulty finding work that is equal to their skills. The Lebanese economy relies on services, but agriculture and industry are important contributors, as well.Many educated Lebanese do not take their government seriously. Government workers, as a result, tend...

    Sports are taken very seriously by the Lebanese. The war made it difficult to pursue organized or professional sports in recent years, but soccer, basketball, and volleyball are popular. Horseback riding was popular before the war closed the clubs, and horse-racing still occurs in the Beirut hippodrome. Cross-country running, particularly in the mountains, and the martial arts are widely practiced. Skiing, rock-climbing, and caving are also enjoyed in the mountains. Many Lebanese go swimming...

    Lebanon has numerous television stations, and television is a more common media source than newspapers. Some of the television stations devote their time completely to Christian programming, while others emphasize Muslim programming or offer a mix. Lebanese cinemas tend to show violent and/or sexy American and European films, although Lebanon itself also has a vital filmmaking industry. Dramatic theater, particularly comedies that poke fun at government leaders and Lebanese society is popular...

    Traditional Lebanese crafts include basketry, carpet-weaving, ceramics and pottery, copper and metalworking, embroidery, glass-blowing, and gold- and silver-smithing. Lebanon is also known for its finely crafted church bells. Wine-making can also be considered an art, dating back for thousands of years in Lebanon.

    Lebanon's civil war caused widespread destruction and a huge social upheaval. It will take several decades for the country to recover from its effects. At least 120,000 people were killed and 300,000 wounded in the fighting, most of them civilians. Another 800,000 or so left the country, mostly the wealthy and well-educated. As many as 1,200,000 Lebanese—almost half the population—had to move from their homes and neighborhoods during the war. Those who remain face a future of high unemploymen...

    Lebanese laws and court systems do little to help women. As a result, women face widespread discrimination in both public and private life. Lebanese laws allow for each religion to have a separate court system to handle matters of marriage, divorce, and inheritance. Frequently, the religious customs fail to protect women from domestic violence. The human rights organization Amnesty International reported in its 2008 Human Rights Watch report that female domestic workers who had migrated from...

    Amnesty International. Amnesty International Report 2008: State of the World's Human Rights. (October 26, 2008).Aziz, Barbara Nimri. \\"Life Links Arab Muslims and Christians.\\" In National Catholic Reporter 31, no. 31 (2 June 1995): 14.Background Note: Lebanon. United States Department of State, (October 25, 2008).Keen, Lynda. Guide to Lebanon. Old Saybrook, CT: The Globe Pequot Press, 1995.Lebanon. CultureGram...

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