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  1. Elected in 1658, Leopold ruled the Holy Roman Empire until his death in 1705, becoming the longest-ruling Habsburg emperor (46 years and 9 months). Leopold's reign is known for conflicts with the Ottoman Empire in the Great Turkish War (1683-1699) and rivalry with Louis XIV , a contemporary and first cousin, in the west.

  2. Leopold I, (born June 9, 1640, Vienna—died May 5, 1705, Vienna), Holy Roman emperor during whose lengthy reign (1658–1705) Austria emerged from a series of struggles with the Turks and the French to become a great European power, in which monarchical absolutism and administrative centralism gained ascendancy. Early years.

  3. Elected Holy Roman Emperor in 1658, Leopold would rule as such until his death in 1705. Leopold's reign is known for the conflicts with the Ottoman Empire in the east, and the rivalry with Louis XIV, a contemporary and first cousin, in the west. After more than a decade of warfare, Leopold emerged victorious from the Great Turkish War thanks to ...

    • Early Years
    • Second Northern War
    • Early Wars Against The Ottoman Empire
    • Wars Against France
    • Internal Problems
    • Success Against The Turks and in Hungary
    • The Holy Roman Empire
    • Character and Overall Assessment
    • Private Life
    • Music

    Born on 9 June 1640 in Vienna, Leopold received a careful education by excellent teachers. From an early age Leopold showed an inclination toward learning. He became fluent in several languages: Latin, Italian, German, French, and Spanish. In addition to German, Italian would be the most favored language at his court. Leopold was schooled in the classics, history, literature, natural science and astronomy, and was particularly interested in music, having inherited his father's musical talents. Originally intended for the Church, Leopold had received a suitably ecclesiastical education. But Fate put in motion a different plan for him when smallpox took his elder brother Ferdinand on 9 July 1654 and made Leopold heir apparent. Nonetheless, Leopold's church education had clearly marked him. Leopold remained influenced by the Jesuits and his education throughout his life, and was uncommonly knowledgeable for a monarch about theology, metaphysics, jurisprudence and the sciences. He also...

    Leopold's first war was the Second Northern War (1655–1660). This war saw King Charles X of Sweden try to become King of Poland with the aid of allies including György II Rákóczi, Prince of Transylvania. Leopold's predecessor, Ferdinand III, had allied with King John II Casimir Vasaof Poland in 1656. In 1657, Leopold expanded this alliance to include Austrian troops (paid by Poland). These troops helped defeat the Transylvanian army, and campaigned as far as Denmark. The war ended with the Treaty of Oliwain 1660.

    A more dangerous foe next entered the lists. The Ottoman Empire interfered in the affairs of Transylvania, always an unruly district, and this interference brought on a war with the Holy Roman Empire, which after some desultory operations really began in 1663. By a personal appeal to the diet at Regensburg Leopold induced the princes to send assistance for the campaign; troops were also sent by France, and in August 1664, the great Imperial general Raimondo Montecuccoli gained a notable victory at Saint Gotthard. By the Peace of Vasvárthe Emperor made a twenty years' truce with the Sultan, granting more generous terms than his recent victory seemed to render necessary.

    After a few years of peace came the first of three wars between France and the Empire. The aggressive policy pursued by Louis XIV towards the Dutch Republichad aroused the serious attention of Europe, and steps had been taken to check it. Although the French king had sought the alliance of several German princes and encouraged the Ottomans in their attacks on Austria the Emperor at first took no part in this movement. He was on friendly terms with Louis, to whom he was closely related and with whom he had already discussed the partition of the lands of the Spanish monarchy. Moreover, in 1671, he arranged with him a treaty of neutrality. In 1672, however, he was forced to take action. He entered into an alliance for the defence of the United Provinces during the Franco-Dutch War; then, after this league had collapsed owing to the defection of the elector of Brandenburg, the more durable Quadruple Alliance was formed for the same purpose, including, besides the emperor, the king of Sp...

    The emperor himself defined the guidelines of the politics. Johann Weikhard Auersperg was overthrown in 1669 as the leading minister. He was followed by Wenzel Eusebius Lobkowicz. Both had arranged some connections to France without the knowledge of the emperor. In 1674 also Lobkowicz lost his appointment. In governing his own lands Leopold found his chief difficulties in Hungary, where unrest was caused partly by his desire to crush Protestantism and partly by the so-called Magnate conspiracy. A rising was suppressed in 1671 and for some years Hungary was treated with great severity. In 1681, after another rising, some grievances were removed and a less repressive policy was adopted, but this did not deter the Hungarians from revolting again. Espousing the cause of the rebels the sultan sent an enormous army into Austria early in 1683; this advanced almost unchecked to Vienna, which was besieged from July to September, while Leopold took refuge at Passau. Realizing the gravity of t...

    On 12 September 1683, the allied army fell upon the enemy, who was completely routed, and Vienna was saved. The imperial forces, among whom Prince Eugene of Savoy was rapidly becoming prominent, followed up the victory with others, notably one near Mohács in 1687 and another at Zenta in 1697, and in January 1699, the sultan signed the treaty of Karlowitz by which he admitted the sovereign rights of the house of Habsburg over nearly the whole of Hungary (including Serbian Vojvodina). As the Habsburg forces retreated, they withdrew 37,000 Serb families under Peć Patriarch Arsenije III Čarnojević. In 1690 and 1691 Emperor Leopold I had conceived through a number of edicts the autonomy of Serbs in his Empire, which would last and develop for more than two centuries until its abolition in 1912. Before the conclusion of the war, however, Leopold had taken measures to strengthen his hold upon this country. In 1687, the Hungarian diet in Bratislava (called Pressburg at that time) changed th...

    The Peace of Westphalia in 1648 had been a political defeat for the Habsburgs. It ended the idea that Europe was a single Christian empire; governed spiritually by the Pope and temporally by the Holy Roman Emperor. Moreover, the treaty was devoted to parceling out land and influence to the "winners", the anti-Habsburg alliance led by France and Sweden. However, the Habsburgs did gain some benefits out of the wars; the Protestant aristocracy in Habsburg territories had been decimated, and the ties between Vienna and the Habsburg domains in Bohemia and elsewhere were greatly strengthened. These changes would allow Leopold to initiate necessary political and institutional reforms during his reign to develop somewhat of an absolutist state along French lines. The most important consequences of the war was in retrospect to weaken the Habsburgs as emperors but strengthen them in their own lands. Leopold was the first to realize this altered state of affairs and act in accordance with it.

    Leopold was a man of industry and education, and during his later years, he showed some political ability. Regarding himself as an absolute sovereign, he was extremely tenacious of his rights. Greatly influenced by the Jesuits, he was a staunch proponent of the Counter-reformation. In person, he was short, but strong and healthy. Although he had no inclination for a military life, he loved exercise in the open air, such as hunting and riding; he also had a taste and talent for music andcomposed several Oratorios and Suites of Dances. Perhaps due to inbreeding among his progenitors, the hereditary Habsburg jaw was most prominent in Leopold. Because his jaw was depicted unusually large on a 1670 silver coin, Leopold was nicknamed "the Hogmouth"; however, most collectors do not believe the coin was an accurate depiction.[citation needed]

    Leopold was married three times. In 1666, he married Margarita Teresa of Austria (1651–1673), daughter of King Philip IV of Spain, who was both his niece and his first cousin. She was the blonde princess depicted in Diego Velázquez' masterpiece Las Meninas. The wonderful series of Velazquez portraits of this lovely Spanish princess at various stages of her childhood were sent from the court of Madrid to Leopold as he waited in Vienna for his fiancee to grow up. This beautiful girl, the representation of merry childhood, was married at fifteen. She gave birth to four children and finally died at the age of twenty-one, leaving Leopold heartbroken, as he had truly loved her. Leopold and Margarita Teresa of Austria's children: 1. Archduke Ferdinand Wenzel (1667–1668). 2. Archduchess Maria Antonia (1669–1692) married Maximilian II Emanuel, Elector of Bavaria. 3. Archduke Johann Leopold (1670). 4. Archduchess Maria Anna Antonia (1672). His second wife was Archduchess Claudia Felicitas of...

    Like his father, Leopold was a patron of music and a composer. He continued to enrich the court's musical life by employing and providing support for distinguished composers such as Antonio Bertali, Giovanni Bononcini, Johann Kaspar Kerll, Ferdinand Tobias Richter, Alessandro Poglietti, and Johann Fux. Leopold's surviving works show the influence of Bertali and Viennese composers in general (in oratorios and other dramatic works), and of Johann Heinrich Schmelzer (in ballets and German comedies). His sacred music is perhaps his most successful, particularly Missa angeli custodis, a Requiem Mass for his first wife, and Three Lections, composed for the burial of his second wife.Much of Leopold's music was published with works by his father, and described as "works of exceeding high merit."

  4. Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor (* 9.6.1640, O 1666, O 1676, † 5.5.1705) Mariana of Austria, Queen consort of Spain: Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor

    • Early Years
    • Second Northern War
    • Early Wars Against The Ottoman Empire
    • Wars Against France
    • Internal Problems
    • Success Against The Turks and in Hungary
    • The Holy Roman Empire
    • Character and Overall Assessment
    • Private Life
    • Music

    Born on 9 June 1640 in Vienna, Leopold received a careful education by excellent teachers. From an early age Leopold showed an inclination toward learning.He became fluent in several languages: Latin, Italian, German, French, and Spanish. Leopold was schooled in the classics, history, literature, natural science and astronomy, and was particularly interested in music, having inherited his father's musical talents. Originally intended for the Church, Leopold had received a suitably ecclesiastical education. But Fate put in motion a different plan for him when smallpox took his elder brother Ferdinand on 9 July 1654 and made Leopold heir apparent. Nonetheless, Leopold's church education had clearly marked him. Leopold remained influenced by the Jesuits and his education throughout his life, and was uncommonly knowledgeable for a monarch about theology, metaphysics, jurisprudence and the sciences. He also retained his interest in astrology and alchemy which he had developed under Jesui...

    Leopold's first war was the Second Northern War (1655–1660). This war saw King Charles X of Sweden try to become King of Poland with the aid of allies including György II Rákóczi, Prince of Transylvania. Leopold's predecessor, Ferdinand III, had allied with King John II Casimir Vasaof Poland in 1656. In 1657, Leopold expanded this alliance to include Austrian troops (paid by Poland). These troops helped defeat the Transylvanian army, and campaigned as far as Denmark. The war ended with the Treaty of Oliwain 1660.

    A more dangerous foe next entered the lists. The Ottoman Empire interfered in the affairs of Transylvania, always an unruly district, and this interference brought on a war with the Holy Roman Empire, which after some desultory operations really began in 1663. By a personal appeal to the diet at Regensburg Leopold induced the princes to send assistance for the campaign; troops were also sent by France, and in August 1664, the great Imperial general Raimondo Montecuccoli gained a notable victory at Saint Gotthard. By the Peace of Vasvárthe Emperor made a twenty years' truce with the Sultan, granting more generous terms than his recent victory seemed to render necessary.

    After a few years of peace came the first of three wars between France and the Empire. The aggressive policy pursued by Louis XIV towards the Dutch Republichad aroused the serious attention of Europe, and steps had been taken to check it. Although the French king had sought the alliance of several German princes and encouraged the Ottomans in their attacks on Austria the Emperor at first took no part in this movement. He was on friendly terms with Louis, to whom he was closely related and with whom he had already discussed the partition of the lands of the Spanish monarchy. Moreover, in 1671, he arranged with him a treaty of neutrality. In 1672, however, he was forced to take action. He entered into an alliance for the defence of the United Provinces during the Franco-Dutch War; then, after this league had collapsed owing to the defection of the elector of Brandenburg, the more durable Quadruple Alliance was formed for the same purpose, including, besides the emperor, the king of Sp...

    The emperor himself defined the guidelines of the politics. Johann Weikhard Auersperg was overthrown in 1669 as the leading minister. He was followed by Wenzel Eusebius Lobkowicz. Both had arranged some connections to France without the knowledge of the emperor. In 1674 also Lobkowicz lost his appointment. In governing his own lands Leopold found his chief difficulties in Hungary, where unrest was caused partly by his desire to crush Protestantism and partly by the so-called Magnate conspiracy. A rising was suppressed in 1671 and for some years Hungary was treated with great severity. In 1681, after another rising, some grievances were removed and a less repressive policy was adopted, but this did not deter the Hungarians from revolting again. Espousing the cause of the rebels the sultan sent an enormous army into Austria early in 1683; this advanced almost unchecked to Vienna, which was besieged from July to September, while Leopold took refuge at Passau. Realizing the gravity of t...

    On 12 September 1683, the allied army fell upon the enemy, who was completely routed, and Vienna was saved. The imperial forces, among whom Prince Eugene of Savoy was rapidly becoming prominent, followed up the victory with others, notably one near Mohács in 1687 and another at Zenta in 1697, and in January 1699, the sultan signed the treaty of Karlowitz by which he admitted the sovereign rights of the house of Habsburg over nearly the whole of Hungary (including Serbian Vojvodina). As the Habsburg forces retreated, they withdrew 37,000 Serb families under Peć Patriarch Arsenije III Čarnojević. In 1690 and 1691 Emperor Leopold I had conceived through a number of edicts the autonomy of Serbs in his Empire, which would last and develop for more than two centuries until its abolition in 1912. Before the conclusion of the war, however, Leopold had taken measures to strengthen his hold upon this country. In 1687, the Hungarian diet in Bratislava (called Pressburg at that time) changed th...

    The Peace of Westphalia in 1648 had been a political defeat for the Habsburgs. It ended the idea that Europe was a single Christian empire; governed spiritually by the Pope and temporally by the Holy Roman Emperor. Moreover, the treaty was devoted to parceling out land and influence to the "winners", the anti-Habsburg alliance led by France and Sweden. However, the Habsburgs did gain some benefits out of the wars; the Protestant aristocracy in Habsburg territories had been decimated, and the ties between Vienna and the Habsburg domains in Bohemia and elsewhere were greatly strengthened. These changes would allow Leopold to initiate necessary political and institutional reforms during his reign to develop somewhat of an absolutist state along French lines. The most important consequences of the war was in retrospect to weaken the Habsburgs as emperors but strengthen them in their own lands. Leopold was the first to realize this altered state of affairs and act in accordance with it.

    Leopold was a man of industry and education, and during his later years, he showed some political ability. Regarding himself as an absolute sovereign, he was extremely tenacious of his rights. Greatly influenced by the Jesuits, he was a staunch proponent of the Counter-reformation. In person, he was short, but strong and healthy. Although he had no inclination for a military life, he loved exercise in the open air, such as hunting and riding; he also had a taste for music andcomposed several Oratorios and Suites of Dances. Due to an extreme inbreeding among his progenitors, the hereditary Habsburg jaw was most prominent in Leopold. Because his jaw was depicted unusually large on a 1670 silver coin, Leopold was nicknamed "the Hogmouth". However, most collectors do not believe the coin was an accurate depiction.[citation needed]

    Leopold was married three times. In 1666, he married Margarita Teresa of Austria (1651–1673), daughter of King Philip IV of Spain, who was both his niece and his first cousin. She was the blonde princess depicted in Diego Velázquez' masterpiece Las Meninas. The wonderful series of Velazquez portraits of this lovely Spanish princess at various stages of her childhood were sent from the court of Madrid to Leopold as he waited in Vienna for his fiancee to grow up. This beautiful girl, the representation of merry childhood, was married at fifteen. She gave birth to four children and finally died at the age of twenty-one, leaving Leopold heartbroken, as he had truly loved her. Leopold and Margarita Teresa of Austria's children: 1. Archduke Ferdinand Wenzel (1667–1668). 2. Archduchess Maria Antonia (1669–1692) married Maximilian II Emanuel, Elector of Bavaria. 3. Archduke Johann Leopold (1670), Archduke of Austria. 4. Archduchess Maria Anna Antonia (1672), Archduchess of Austria. His seco...

    Like his father, Leopold was a patron of music and a composer. He continued to enrich the court's musical life by employing and providing support for distinguished composers such as Antonio Bertali, Giovanni Bononcini, Johann Kaspar Kerll, Ferdinand Tobias Richter, Alessandro Poglietti, and Johann Fux. Leopold's surviving works show the influence of Bertali and Viennese composers in general (in oratorios and other dramatic works), and of Johann Heinrich Schmelzer (in ballets and German comedies). His sacred music is perhaps his most successful, particularly Missa angeli custodis, a Requiem Mass for his first wife, and Three Lections, composed for the burial of his second wife.Much of Leopold's music was published with works by his father, and described as "works of exceeding high merit."

  5. Aug 22, 2019 · Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor; (June 9, 1640 – May 5, 1705), Holy Roman emperor, was the second son of the emperor Ferdinand III and his first wife Maria Anna of Spain. His maternal grandparents were Philip III of Spain and Margarita of Austria. He was also a first cousin of his rival, Louis XIV.

    • Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor
    • June 09, 1640
    • Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor
    • Wien, Wien, Ôsterreich, Deutschland (HRR)
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