LINE. LINE adalah sebuah aplikasi pengirim pesan instan gratis yang dapat digunakan pada berbagai platform seperti telepon cerdas, tablet, dan komputer. LINE difungsikan dengan menggunakan jaringan internet sehingga pengguna LINE dapat melakukan aktivitas seperti mengirim pesan teks, mengirim gambar, video, pesan suara, dan lain lain.
Indonesia is a presidential, constitutional republic with an elected legislature. It has 34 provinces, of which five have special status. The country's capital, Jakarta, is the world's second-most populous urban area. The country shares land borders with Papua New Guinea, East Timor, and the eastern part of Malaysia.
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LINE is a freeware app for instant communications on electronic devices such as smartphones, tablet computers, and personal computers. LINE users exchange texts, images, video and audio, and conduct free VoIP conversations and video conferences. In addition, LINE is a platform providing various services including digital wallet as LINE Pay, news stream as LINE Today, video on demand as LINE TV, and digital comic distribution as LINE Manga and LINE Webtoon. The service is operated by LINE Corpora
LINE was originally developed as a mobile application for Android and iOS smartphones. The service has since expanded to BlackBerry OS, Nokia Asha, Windows Phone, Firefox OS, iOS tablets, and as a Chrome Browser Application. The application also exists in versions for laptop and desktop computers using the Microsoft Windows and macOS platforms.. The application proved hugely popular, and by late October, LINE experienced an unexpected server overload. After concluding that the scalability proces
As its competitor Kakao dominated the South Korean messaging market, Naver Corporation launched a messenger application NAVER Talk in February 2011 in South Korea. However, because the South Korean messaging market was dominated by Kakao, the business of NAVER Talk was suppressed. Naver Corporation was expanding their messaging application and targeted other countries' messaging markets which had not been developed yet. Naver Corporation released their messaging application, which changed its na
Line began in Spring 2011 as a communication system for NHN Japan employees. It then saw explosive growth when released to the public in June of that year. By 18 January 2013, Line had been downloaded 100 million times worldwide. The number expanded to 140 million by early July 2013 and to 200 million by July 21. As of June 2016, Japan claimed 68 million users while Thailand had 33 million. As of February 2014, Indonesia had 20 million users, Taiwan 17 million, while India and Spain had 16 milli
Line is an application that works on multiple platforms and has access via multiple personal computers. The application will also give an option of address book syncing. This application also has a feature to add friends through the use of QR codes, by Line ID, and by shaking phones simultaneously. The application has a direct pop-out message box for reading and replying to make it easy for users to communicate. It also can share photos, videos and music with other users, send the current or any
This is a timeline of Indonesian history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in Indonesia and its predecessor states. To read about the background to these events, see History of Indonesia.
- Hindu-Buddhist Civilisations
- The Age of Islamic States
- Colonial Era
- The Emergence of Indonesia
- Sukarno's Presidency
- The New Order
- Reform Era
- See Also
- Further Reading
In 2007, an analysis of cut marks on two bovid bones found in Sangiran, showed them to have been made 1.5 to 1.6 million years ago by clamshell tools. This is the oldest evidence for the presence of early humans in Indonesia. Fossilised remains of Homo erectus in Indonesia, popularly known as the "Java Man" were first discovered by the Dutch anatomist Eugène Dubois at Trinil in 1891, and are at least 700,000 years old. Other H. erectus fossils of a similar age were found at Sangiran in the 1930s by the anthropologist Gustav Heinrich Ralph von Koenigswald, who in the same time period also uncovered fossils at Ngandong alongside more advanced tools, re-dated in 2011 to between 550,000 and 143,000 years old. In 1977 another H. erectus skull was discovered at Sambungmacan. The earliest evidence of artistic activity ever found, in the form of diagonal etchings made with the use of a shark's tooth, was detected in 2014 on a 500,000-year-old fossil of a clam found in Java in the 1890s, ass...
Indonesia like much of Southeast Asia was influenced by Indian culture. From the 2nd century, through the Indian dynasties like the Pallava, Gupta, Pala and Cholain the succeeding centuries up to the 12th century, Indian culture spread across all of Southeast Asia. References to the Dvipantara or Yawadvipa, a Hindu kingdom in Java and Sumatra appear in Sanskrit writings from 200 BCE. In India's earliest epic, the Ramayana, Sugriva, the chief of Rama's army dispatched his men to Yawadvipa, the...
Medang Empire, sometimes referred to as Mataram, was an Indianized kingdom based in Central Java around modern-day Yogyakarta between the 8th and 10th centuries. The kingdom was ruled by the Sailendra dynasty, and later by the Sanjaya dynasty. The centre of the kingdom was moved from central Java to East Java by Mpu Sindok. An eruption of the volcano Mount Merapi in 929, and political pressure from Sailendrans based in the Srivijaya Empiremay have caused the move. The first king of Mataram, S...
Srivijaya was an ethnic Malay kingdom on Sumatra which influenced much of the Maritime Southeast Asia. From the 7th century, the powerful Srivijayanaval kingdom flourished as a result of trade and the influences of Hinduism and Buddhism that were imported with it. Srivijaya was centred in the coastal trading centre of present-day Palembang. Srivijaya was not a "state" in the modern sense with defined boundaries and a centralised government to which the citizens own allegiance. Rather Srivijay...
The spread of Islam
The earliest accounts of the Indonesian archipelago date from the Abbasid Caliphate, according to those early accounts the Indonesian archipelago were famous among early Muslim sailors mainly due to its abundance of precious spice trade commodities such as nutmeg, cloves, galangaland many other spices. Although Muslim traders first travelled through South East Asia early in the Islamic era, the spread of Islam among the inhabitants of the Indonesian archipelago dates to the 13th century in no...
Sultanate of Mataram
The Sultanate of Mataram was the third Sultanate in Java, after the Sultanate of Demak Bintoroand the Sultanate of Pajang. According to Javanese records, Kyai Gedhe Pamanahan became the ruler of the Mataram area in the 1570s with the support of the kingdom of Pajang to the east, near the current site of Surakarta(Solo). Pamanahan was often referred to as Kyai Gedhe Mataram after his ascension. Pamanahan's son, Panembahan Senapati Ingalaga, replaced his father on the throne around 1584. Under...
The Sultanate of Banten
In 1524–25, Sunan Gunung Jati from Cirebon, together with the armies of Demak Sultanate, seized the port of Banten from the Sunda kingdom, and established The Sultanate of Banten. This was accompanied by Muslim preachers and the adoption of Islam amongst the local population. At its peak in the first half of the 17th century, the Sultanate lasted from 1526 to 1813 AD. The Sultanate left many archaeological remains and historical records.
Beginning in the 16th century, successive waves of Europeans—the Portuguese, Spanish, Dutch and English—sought to dominate the spice trade at its sources in India and the 'Spice Islands' (Maluku) of Indonesia. This meant finding a way to Asia to cut out Muslim merchants who, with their Venetian outlet in the Mediterranean, monopolised spice imports to Europe. Astronomically priced at the time, spices were highly coveted not only to preserve and make poorly preserved meat palatable, but also as medicines and magic potions. The arrival of Europeans in South East Asia is often regarded as the watershed moment in its history. Other scholars consider this view untenable, arguing that European influence during the times of the early arrivals of the 16th and 17th centuries was limited in both area and depth. This is in part due to Europe not being the most advanced or dynamic area of the world in the early 15th century. Rather, the major expansionist force of this time was Islam; in 1453,...
Indonesian National Awakening
In October 1908, the first nationalist movement was formed, Budi Utomo. On 10 September 1912, the first nationalist mass movement was formed: Sarekat Islam. By December 1912, Sarekat Islam had 93,000 members. The Dutch responded after the First World War with repressive measures. The nationalist leaders came from a small group of young professionals and students, some of whom had been educated in the Netherlands. In the post–World War I era, the Indonesian communists who were associated with...
The Japanese invasion and subsequent occupation during World War II interrupted Dutch rule and encouraged the previously suppressed Indonesian independence movement. In May 1940, early in World War II, Nazi Germany occupied the Netherlands, but the Dutch government-in-exile initially continued to control the Dutch East Indies from its base in London. The Dutch East Indies declared a state of siege and in July 1940 redirected exports intended for Japan to the US and Britain. Negotiations with...
Indonesian National Revolution
Under pressure from radical and politicised pemuda ('youth') groups, Sukarno and Hatta proclaimed Indonesian independence on 17 August 1945, two days after the Japanese Emperor's surrender in the Pacific. The following day, the Central Indonesian National Committee (KNIP) declared Sukarno President and Hatta Vice-President. Word of the proclamation spread by shortwave and fliers while the Indonesian war-time military (PETA), youths, and others rallied in support of the new republic, often mov...
With the unifying struggle to secure Indonesia's independence over, divisions in Indonesian society began to appear. These included regional differences in customs, religion, the impact of Christianity and Marxism, and fears of Javanese political domination. Following colonial rule, Japanese occupation, and war against the Dutch, the new country suffered from severe poverty, a ruinous economy, low educational and skills levels, and authoritarian traditions. Challenges to the authority of the...
By 1956, Sukarno was openly criticising parliamentary democracy, stating that it was "based upon inherent conflict" which ran counter to Indonesian notions of harmony as being the natural state of human relationships. Instead, he sought a system based on the traditional village system of discussion and consensus, under the guidance of village elders. He proposed a threefold blend of nasionalisme ('nationalism'), agama ('religion'), and komunisme ('communism') into a co-operative 'Nas-A-Kom' g...
Sukarno's revolution and nationalism
Charismatic Sukarno spoke as a romantic revolutionary, and under his increasingly authoritarian rule, Indonesia moved on a course of stormy nationalism. Sukarno was popularly referred to as bang ("older brother"), and he painted himself as a man of the people carrying the aspirations of Indonesia and one who dared take on the West.He instigated a number of large, ideologically driven infrastructure projects and monuments celebrating Indonesia's identity, which were criticised as substitutes f...
Transition to the New Order
Described as the great dalang ("puppet master"), Sukarno's position depended on balancing the opposing and increasingly hostile forces of the army and the PKI. Sukarno's anti-imperialist ideology saw Indonesia increasingly dependent on Soviet and then communist China. By 1965, the PKI was the largest communist party in the world outside the Soviet Union or China. Penetrating all levels of government, the party increasingly gained influence at the expense of the army. On 30 September 1965, six...
Entrenchment of the New Order
In the aftermath of Suharto's rise, hundreds of thousands of people were killed or imprisoned by the military and religious groups in a backlash against alleged communist supporters, with direct support from the United States. Suharto's administration is commonly called the New Order era.Suharto invited major foreign investment, which produced substantial, if uneven, economic growth. However, Suharto enriched himself and his family through business dealings and widespread corruption.
Annexation of West Irian
At the time of independence, the Dutch retained control over the western half of New Guinea (also known as West Irian), and permitted steps towards self-government and a declaration of independence on 1 December 1961. After negotiations with the Dutch on the incorporation of the territory into Indonesia failed, an Indonesian paratroop invasion 18 December preceded armed clashes between Indonesian and Dutch troops in 1961 and 1962. In 1962 the United States pressured the Netherlands into secre...
In 1996 Suharto undertook efforts to pre-empt a challenge to the New Order government. The Indonesian Democratic Party (PDI), a legal party that had traditionally propped up the regime, had changed direction and began to assert its independence. Suharto fostered a split over the leadership of PDI, backing a co-opted faction loyal to deputy speaker of the People's Representative Council Suryadi against a faction loyal to Megawati Sukarnoputri, the daughter of Sukarnoand the PDI's chairperson....
Economic crisis and Suharto's resignation
In 1997 and 1998, Indonesia was the country hardest hit by the 1997 Asian financial crisis, which had dire consequences for the Indonesian economy and society, as well as Suharto's presidency. At the same time, the country suffered a severe drought and some of the largest forest fires in history burned in Kalimantan and Sumatra. The rupiah, the Indonesian currency, took a sharp dive in value. Suharto came under scrutiny from international lending institutions, chiefly the World Bank, Internat...
May 1998 riots of Indonesia
The May 1998 riots of Indonesia also known as the 1998 tragedy or simply the 1998 event, were incidents of mass violence, demonstrations, and civil unrest of a racial nature that occurred throughout Indonesia.Burhanudin, Jajat, and Kees van Dijk, eds. Islam in Indonesia: Contrasting Images and Interpretations(Amsterdam University Press, distributed by University of Chicago Press; 2013) 279 pages; schola...Dijk, Kees van. 2001. A country in despair. Indonesia between 1997 and 2000. KITLV Press, Leiden, ISBN 90-6718-160-9Schwarz, Adam. 1994. A Nation in Waiting: Indonesia's Search for Stability. 2nd Edition. St Leonards, NSW : Allen & Unwin.van Zanden J. L. An Economic History of Indonesia: 1800–2010(Routledge, 2012)
The name 'Wallace's Line' was first used by Thomas Huxley in an 1868 paper to the Zoological Society of London, but showed the line to the west of the Philippines.   Wallace's studies in Indonesia demonstrated the emerging theory of evolution , at about the same time as Joseph Dalton Hooker and Asa Gray published essays also supporting ...
2 Main line. 3 Electric line. Great Eastern Main Line (GEML, kadang disebut East Anglia Main Line) adalah jalur kereta api besar sepanjang 114,5-mil (184,3 km) dalam sistem kereta api Britania Raya yang menghubungkan stasiun Liverpool Street di London Pusat dengan sejumlah tempat di London timur dan Inggris Timur, termasuk Shenfield, Chelmsford ...
Mains electricity by country includes a list of countries and territories, with the plugs, voltages and frequencies they commonly use for providing electrical power to low voltage appliances, equipment, and lighting typically found in homes and offices.
- Tiket Elektronik Dan Tarif
- Armada Krl Commuter Line
- Lihat Pula
Elektrifikasi jalur Staatsspoorwegen
Wacana elektrifikasi jalur kereta api sudah didengungkan sejak 1917 oleh perusahaan kereta api milik pemerintah Hindia Belanda Staatsspoorwegen (SS). Saat itu, elektrifikasi jalur kereta api diprediksi akan menguntungkan secara ekonomi. Elektrifikasi jalur kereta api kemudian dilakukan dari Tanjung Priuk sampai dengan Meester Cornelis (Jatinegara) dimulai pada tahun 1923. Pembangunan ini selesai pada 24 Desember 1924. Proyek elektrifikasi terus berlanjut. Jalur lingkar Jakarta selesai dielekt...
Jalur kereta yang terelektrifikasi tersebut terus digunakan dan diperluas wilayah operasionalnya sejak kemerdekaan Indonesia. Pengoperasian jalur kereta api di Indonesia dilaksanakan oleh Djawatan Kereta Api Repoeblik Indonesia(DKA) hingga era PT Kereta Api Indonesia pada saat ini.
Pada awal perkenalan pola loopline pada tahun 2011, Commuter Line Jabodetabek memiliki 6 jalur dan 8 relasi. Saat ini jumlah tersebut bertambah menjadi 6 jalur dan 13 relasi yang melayani seluruh wilayah Jabodetabek dan Lebak.Tebal: Stasiun akhir atau transitMiring: Hanya melayani kereta jarak jauh/ menengah, tidak melayani CommuterlineCoret: Stasiun nonaktifls berarti: berjalan langsung
Multi trip dan single trip
Sebagai tahapan penerapan program e-ticketing, PT Kereta Api Indonesia dan PT KAI Commuter Jabodetabek mulai 2012 mengganti Kartu Trayek Bulanan (KTB)/Kartu Langganan Sekolah (KLS) secara bertahap hingga pada 1 Juli 2013 ditetapkan menjadi Commuter Electronic Ticketing (Commet). Kartu Commet adalah alat pembayaran pengganti uang tunai yang digunakan untuk transaksi perjalanan KA Commuter Line sebagai tiket perjalanan KA, yang disediakan dalam bentuk kartu sekali pakai (Single-Trip) dan prabay...
Tiket harian berjaminan
Karena penerapan tiket single trip mengakibatkan banyaknya kejadian tiket perjalanan single trip hilang, pada tanggal 11 Agustus 2013 KCJ menerapkan sistem ticketingpengganti sistem single trip untuk penumpang KRL Commuter Line tanpa berlangganan. Penghitungan tarif sesuai dengan skema tarif perjalanan single trip, tetapi penumpang diharuskan untuk membayar uang jaminan untuk THB. Uang jaminan dapat diambil kembali di stasiun hingga jangka waktu maksimal 7 hari atau ditukarkan kembali dengan...
Kartu multi trip
Selain tiket harian berjaminan, penumpang dapat menggunakan Kartu Multi Trip (KMT) berteknologi FeliCa. Kartu Multi Trip adalah kartu prabayar isi ulang yang dapat digunakan penumpang sebagai tiket KRL dengan ketentuan saldo minimum. Kartu tersebut hanya bisa digunakan untuk naik KRL Commuter Line saja dan dapat di isi ulang di seluruh stasiun Commuter Line di Jabodetabek.
Jalur KA Commuter Jabodetabek dilayani oleh beberapa tipe dan jenis kereta. Sekarang, Jalur ini hanya dilayani oleh KRL AC. KRL Ekonomi non-AC sudah dihentikan operasionalnya pada tahun 2013.2 November 1993, KRL Ekonomi Rheostatik Stainless bertabrakan dengan KRL Ekonomi Rheostatik Mild Steel di Ratujaya, Depok. Akibatnya, 17 orang tewas dan 2 kereta dari masing-masing rangkaian hancur...4 Oktober 2012, KRL Commuter Line dengan nomor perjalanan 435 (Bogor-Jakarta Kota) anjlok dan menabrak peron di Stasiun Cilebut, menyebabkan perjalanan kereta dari Jakarta hanya sampai Stasiun Bojo...9 Desember 2013, KRL Commuter Line dengan nomor perjalanan 1131 (Maja-Tanah Abang) menabrak truk tangki Pertaminahingga meledak dan terbakar. Rangkaian yang terlibat dalam insiden ini adalah KRL TM...23 September 2015, pukul 15.25 WIB, terjadi kecelakaan yang melibatkan dua KRL JR 205 SF 10 (rangkaian 205-54F dan 205-123F) di Stasiun Juanda. Kondisi kedua kabin KRL JR 205 (KuHa 204 / 205) terse...Peta rute KCI.Peta rute KAI Daerah Operasi 1 Jakarta beserta beberapa operator kereta api di sekitarnya berdasarkan geografis.KRL JR 205 yang baru diturunkan ke rel di Stasiun Pasoso.