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  1. The name Occitan comes from the term lenga d'òc ("language of òc "), òc being the Occitan word for yes. While the term would have been in use orally for some time after the decline of Latin, as far as historical records show, the Italian medieval poet Dante was the first to have recorded the term lingua d'oc in writing.

  2. La lingua occitana non è riconosciuta come lingua ufficiale. In effetti, i tre paesi europei al riguardo non hanno ufficializzato le loro lingue regionali a livello europeo. Queste lingue non sono quelle ufficiali del lavoro e l'occitano ha solamente uno statuto di lingua regionale e minoritaria.

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    • Nome
    • Variantes
    • Historia
    • Literatura
    • Falantes
    • Véxase tamén

    Na literatura científica, e en xeral nos usos cultos, emprégase na actualidade para denominar a lingua occitano, ou menos frecuentemente lenga d'òc, esas formas apareceron no cabo do século XIII derivadas do adverbio afirmativo òc (si), seguindo os usos empregados na Idade Media para distinguila da lingua del sì ou italiano e da langue d'oïl ou francés. A forma provenzal designou en diversas épocas, como no século XIII e nos séculos XIX e boa parte do XX a todo o dominio lingüístico pero a partir dos anos 1960 deixou de se empregar con ese significado, designando tan só o dialecto occitano que se fala na Provenza. Historicamente tamén se empregaron outros sinónimos de occitano como lemosino no século XIII, e que mesmo designou tamén o catalán nos séculos XVIII e XIX pola súa filiación co occitano medieval, e que hoxe designa o dialecto occitano da rexión Limoges, e gascón nos séculos XVI, XVII e XVIII[4] que na actualidade designa o dialecto occitano de Gascuña e Bearn.

    O occitano divídese fundamentalmente en tres dialectos ou variantes: o occitano norte (falado en Limousin, Auvernia e nos Alpes provenzais, o occitano medio (falado no Languedoc) e o gascón (falado na Aquitania)[5]. O aranés, falado no Val de Arán, derívase do gascón.[5]

    Idade Media

    Os primeiros documentos en Occitano datan do século X, sendo o primeiro de todos un refrán vencellado a un poema latino do século X. Mais non foi ata o século XI cando se escriben os primeiros textos literarios, acadando unha grande época de esplendor. Así, xente na nobreza coma o rei Pedro I de Aragón ou Ricardo Corazón de León escribiron poemas en occitano[5]. Dantecoñeceu a lingua e empregouna nalgúns dos seus textos, sendo tamén empregada en documentos xurídicos.

    Idade moderna

    A anexión á coroa francesa non mudou esta situación, e seguiu a ser a lingua empregada pola maioría da poboación. Porén diversas leis e edictos comezaron a minguar o prestixio do Occitano. Así o rei Francisco I, no edicto de Villers-Cotterêts (1539), remarcou a supremacía do francés sobre o occitano, cualificando despectivamente, este monarca, ademais ó occitano e a outros idiomas locais de patois. Neste documento prohibiuse empregar o Occitano coma lingua administrativa e xurídica[5].Coa cre...

    Idade contemporánea

    Porén foi a Revolución francesa, a que definiu o francés coma idioma de liberdade e unidade en toda Francia. Así, no 1802 prohibiuse a ensinanza do occitano nas escolas. Recruándose esta prohibición nos anos seguintes.[5]A mediados do século XIX, fundouse o movemento Félibrige, que procuraba a renovación literaria. Movemento que aínda dura, ata hoxe en día.A primeira Guerra Mundial representou un novo declive no emprego do Occitano. Por un lado moitos soldados occitanos morreron na contenda e...

    A literatura occitana foi a máis rica (só por diante do galego) na Europa da época medieval. Dos séculos XII ao XIV foi lingua literaria, especialmente no xénero lírico, en Francia, Italia e norte da Península Ibérica, sendo a lingua dos trobadores medievais desa área. O texto máis antigo en occitano é Pódese considerar que na etapa medieval as diversas variantes de occitano, o catalán e mailo aragonés constituían unha soa lingua que comezou a se dividir nos séculos XIII-XIV. No século XVI e no século XVII produciuse unha revitalización, con autores como Louis Bellaud de la Bellaudière, Guilhem Ader, Pèire Godolin, Glaudi Brueis e Francés de Corteta. Durante o século XIX fixéronse importantes esforzos por revitalizala como lingua poética e literaria por un grupo de persoas coñecidos como Félibrige, que encabezaron Frédéric Mistral, Fèlix Castan ou Joseph Roumanille. Non obstante, non acadaron repercusión suficiente e hoxe emprégase en menos ocasións có francéscomo forma literaria, c...

    En 1992, as cifras achegadas eran de 750.000 falantes activos na Provenza e entre 1 e 1,5 millóns que entendían a lingua. Un ano antes, unha sondaxe realizada entre 939 persoas entrevistadas en catro departamentos de Languedoc (Aude, Hérault, Lozère e Gard, cun total de 1.751.178 habitantes) amosaba un 48% de cidadáns que entendía a lingua e un 28% que a falaba, mais tan só o 9% o facía a diario. Aínda que no século XX seguía a ser unha lingua de uso diario para a maioría da poboación rural do sur de Francia, agora é falada por unhas 100.000 persoas en Francia segundo estimacións de 2012. [1]

    Outros artigos

    1. Gascón 2. Aranés 3. Manifestación polo Occitano 4. Occitanismo

    Ligazóns externas

    1. Diccionari general occitan de Cantalausa 2. (en occitano) (en francés) Ostal d'Occitània de Tolosa

    • [ut͡siˈta]
    • Europa
  4. en.wikipedia.org › wiki › OccitaniaOccitania - Wikipedia

    • Geographic Extent
    • Toponymies
    • Historiography of The Occitania Concept
    • Geography
    • History
    • Outer Settlements
    • Cultural and Political Movements
    • Today
    • Language
    • Literature

    The extent of Occitania may vary according to the criteria used: 1. Based on a geolinguistic definition, Occitania coincides with the current area of Occitan language. The formerly Occitanophone regions are not included, on the other hand one always speaks Occitan in the French Basque Country and in the Països Catalans (the Val d'Aran and the Fenolheda), and internal allophone enclaves (Petite Gavacharie of Poitevin-Saintongeais language, ancient Ligurian enclaves of eastern Provence, the quasi-Ligurian-Occitan enclave of Monaco ...); either taking into account the mass of lands where Occitan is spoken, without taking into account small internal or external enclaves.This last definition of a contiguous and compact territory is currently the most widespread. 2. Occitanian culture flourished in the High Middle Ages. Many writers, poets, and exponents in the troubadour movement used Occitan as their language of choice, and their works prominently featured courtly love as well as, at ti...

    Occitania comes from the medieval Latin Occitania. The first part of the name, Occ-, comes from Occitan òc and the expression langue d'oc, in Italian lingua d'oc. It is an appellation promoted by Dante Alighieri of Occitan by the way of saying "oui" in Old Occitan-Catalan; as opposed to the "langue de si" (Italian) and the "langue d'oïl" ("yes" in Old French). The ending -itania is probably an imitation of the name [Aqu] itania(Aquitaine). The term Occitania is a synonym for Languedoc and the Mediterranean coast in the Middle Ages. The first attestation of the use of Occitanie in French dates from 1556. The first certificate of Occitania in Italy date 1549. In German, we find the word Occitania in 1572. All the Occitan language countries have had various designations throughout history. The word Occitania has been the subject of whimsical etymologies, as, for example, Languedoc formerly understood as "land of Goth" or "language of Goth") As well as the rapprochement to the Occitan l...

    The langue d'oc is a territorialized language, that is to say, spoken mainly on a territory whose boundaries can be described. This part attempts to describe the origins of the Occitanie concept, the different names that this territory has taken and the creation of the modern concept of Occitania.

    Occitania includes the following regions: 1. The southern half of France: Provence, Drôme-Vivarais, Auvergne, Limousin, Guyenne, Gascony, southern Dauphiné and Languedoc. French is now the dominant language in this area, where Occitan is not recognized as an official language. 2. The Occitan Valleys in the Italian Аlps, where the Occitan language received legal status in 1999. These are fourteen Piedmontese valleys in the provinces of Cuneo and Turin, as well as in scattered mountain communities of the Liguria region (province of Imperia), and, unexpectedly, in one community (Guardia Piemontese) in the region of Calabria (province of Cosenza). 3. The Aran valley, in the Pyrenees, in Cataloniawhere Occitan has been an official language since 1990 (status granted by the partial autonomy of Aran Valley, then confirmed by the Catalan Statute) 4. The Principality of Monaco (where Occitan is traditionally spoken beside Monégasque). Occitan or langue d'oc (lenga d'òc) is a Latin-based Roma...

    Written texts in Occitan appeared in the 10th century: it was used at once in legal then literary, scientific or religious texts. The spoken dialects of Occitan are many centuries older and appeared as soon as the 8th century, at least, revealed in toponyms or in Occitanized words left in Latinmanuscripts, for instance. Occitania was often politically united during the Early Middle Ages, under the Visigothic Kingdom and several Merovingian and Carolingian sovereigns. In Thionville, nine years before he died (805), Charlemagne vowed that his empire be partitioned into three autonomous territories according to nationalities and mother tongues: along with the Franco-German and Italian ones, was roughly what is now modern Occitania from the reunion of a broader Provence and Aquitaine. But things did not go according to plan and at the division of the Frankish Empire (9th century), Occitania was split into different counties, duchies and kingdoms, bishops and abbots, self-governing commu...

    Although not really a colony in a modern sense, there was an enclave in the County of Tripoli. Raymond IV of Toulouse founded it in 1102 during the Crusades north of Jerusalem.Most people of this county came from Occitania and Italyand so the Occitan language was spoken. Around the XIVth century, some "Provençal" settlements were founded by Valdenses in Southern Italy: Capitanata area, Basilicate, and Calabria. Most of them were destroyed by the Inquisition during the XVIth century, but Guardia Piemontese managed to keep its language and occitan identity until nowadays. At the end of the XVIIth century, Valdenses flying persecution in the Occitan valleys settled in Baden, Hessen, and Wurtemberg (nowadays Germany). The use of Occitan language vanished during the XXth century, but some Occitan placenames are still in use. In the XIXth century, Occitans settled in America. Valdense colonies have been keeping a bit of the language until today, e.g. in Uruguay and in the United States.

    Occitanist associations or organizations

    The oldest association is the Felibritge, founded in 1854. Some of its members founded in 1945 a distinct movement under the name of Institut d'Estudis Occitans after the Second World War. The main movements in France are as follows: 1. Felibritgehistorical Mistralian, literary and linguistic movement. 2. Institut d'Estudis Occitans(IEO), maintenance and development of the Occitan language and culture as a whole. 3. Calandreta, private associations of Occitan schools of private status 4. Seve...

    There are 14 to 16 million inhabitants in Occitania today. According to the 1999 census, there are 610,000 native speakers and another million people with some exposure to the language. Native speakers of Occitan are to be found mostly in the older generations. The Institut d'Estudis Occitans (IEO) has been modernizing the Occitan language since 1945, and the Conselh de la Lenga Occitana (CLO) since 1996. Nowadays Occitan is used in the most modern musical and literary styles such as rock 'n roll, folk rock (Lou Dalfin), rap (Fabulous Trobadors), reggae (Massilia Sound System) and heavy metal, detective stories or science-fiction. It is represented on the internet. Association schools (Calandretas) teach children in Occitan. The Occitan political movement for self-government has existed since the beginning of the 20th century and particularly since post-war years (Partit Occitan, Partit de la Nacion Occitana, Anaram Au Patac, Iniciativa Per Occitània, Paratge, Bastir! etc.). The mov...

    The Occitan language is only recognized as official, protected and promoted in the Val d'Aran (in Spain); in Italy it has the status of a protected language; and in Franceit only has acceptance in the educational network but without legal recognition. The Fédération des langues régionales pour l'enseignement publiccalculated the number of students in the Occitan language in October 2005 at 4,326. According to a 2002 report by the French Ministry of Culture (Report to Parliament on the use of the French language, 2003), in public schools, collèges and lycéesand private schools: in the academic year 2001–02, 67,549 students had enrolled in classes of or in Occitan. Despite this precarious social position, Occitan was one of the official languages of the 2006 Turin Winter Olympics.

    The troubadour school first marked the emergence of a distinct Occitan culture during the High Middle Ages. The troubadours were highly appreciated for their refined lyricism and influenced many ot...
    Occitan literature experienced a rebirth during the Baroque period, mainly in Gascony through the Béarnese dialect. Indeed, Béarnese was the mother-tongue Henry IV of France, whose designation spar...
    Frédéric Mistral and his Félibrige school marked the renewal of the Occitan language in literature in the middle of the 19th century. Mistral won the 1904 Nobel Prize in literature, illustrating th...
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    • 16 million
  5. Lingua Occitana est sermo Indoeuropaeus.Sub familia Romanica subsummata est una cum linguis Lusitana, Italiana, Francogallica, Dacoromanica aliisque. Clarus scriptor huius linguae fuit Fridericus Mistral

  6. Lingua occitana. A lingua occitana, ò lingua uccitana (l' occitanu /l' uccitanu; nome nativu: occitan ò lenga d'òc) hè una lingua rumanica parlata in Occitania / Francia meridiunale, è ancu un pocu in u nordu di a Catalunia / Spagna (Val d'Aran) è di l'Italia (ind'e Valli occitani, in l'Alpi). Ci sò circa 2,8 milioni di locutori.

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