In Finland, the euro is the official currency, and Swedish is an official language alongside Finnish. The same spelling as in Sweden is used (officially Swedish in Finland is spelt as in Sweden). The pronunciation, however, is [ˈěuro], which has some similarities to Finnish pronunciation.
The current design of euro banknotes has the word euro written in both the Latin and Greek (Ευρώ) alphabets; the Cyrillic spelling (Eвро) was added to the new Europa series of banknotes started in 2013 (see Linguistic issues concerning the euro). Language-specific regulations Maltese
The international status and usage of the euro has grown since its launch in 1999. When the euro formally replaced 12 currencies on 1 January 2002, it inherited their use in territories such as Montenegro and replaced minor currencies tied to the pre-euro currencies, such as in Monaco. Four small states have been given a formal right to use the ...
Is there a universal definition of word?Is there a universal definition of sentence?Are there any universal grammatical categories?Is syntactic structure constructed of part-whole relations of syntactic constituents or is it built of an asymmetrical dependency relationbetween words?What is language?How do intension, comprehension, reference, intention and intentionality, extension, linguistic relativity, context, ambiguity, polysemy, idiolect, dialect, among other major linguistics concepts,...
- Philosophy of Language
- Historical Linguistics and The Evolution of Language
- Computational Linguistics
- Lexicology and Lexicography
The evolution of language
1. How and when did language originate? 1.1. How and when did different modes of language (spoken, signed, written) originate? 1.2. Were Homo sapiens the first humans to use language? What about other species in the genus Homo? 1.3. Is language continuous or discontinuous with earlier forms of communication? Did language appear suddenly or gradually?
1. What language families are valid? 1.1. Are any macro-familiesvalid? 2. Can any of the approximately 100 unclassified languages be classified?Or does our limited knowledge of them prevent that? 3. Can we decipher any of the extant undeciphered writing systems? 4. Language isolateshave no demonstrated relatives, and essentially form language families on their own. Can any of the approximately 159 language isolates be shown to be related to other languages? 5. Can we use the comparative metho...How to deal with variation in language (including idiolects, dialects, sociolects, jargons, argots, etc.) to achieve effective and successful communication between individuals and between groups, i...What are the best ways to quantitatively and qualitatively compare language use between individuals and between groups?How does time (and the semantic changethat it brings) and physical age influence language use?What causes linguistic features to begin to undergo language change at some points in time and in some dialects but not others? (This is known as the "actuation problem".)Is perfect computational word-sense disambiguation attainable by using software? If yes, how and why? If no, why? (This presupposes the solution to the unsolved problems in the other areas of lingu...Is accurate computational word-sense inductionfeasible? If yes, how and why? If not, why?What makes a good dictionary?To what extent are dictionaries reliable in terms of their supposed universality when spoken language is constantly changing (semantic change, semantic extension, semantic compression, etc.)?What are good practices to avoid circular definitions in dictionaries? Is it possible to eliminate them at all, given the vagueness, polysemy, etc. in all languages?What are the best ways to ensure efficient communication without misunderstandings: in everyday life and in educational, scientific and philosophical discussions? Is total terminology standardizati...Is there an objective gauge for the quality of translation?What are the best strategies for quality translation: fidelity or transparency, dynamic or formal equivalence, etc.?What are the best ways to deal with untranslatability, e.g. lexical gaps?How to best deal with translation loss and its accumulation, e.g. when translating from a translation (see Chinese whispers)?Is there an objective way to determine which are the most difficult languages?To what extent are conlangs usable and useful as used as natural languages by humans?
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The United Kingdom entered the European Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM), a prerequisite for adopting the euro, in October 1990. The UK spent over £6 billion trying to keep its currency, the pound sterling, within the narrow limits prescribed by ERM, but was forced to exit the programme within two years after the pound sterling came under major pressure from currency speculators.