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  1. Pencak silat - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Pencak_Silat
    • Etymology
    • History
    • Weapons
    • Styles and Schools
    • Techniques
    • International Competitions
    • See Also
    • Further Reading
    • External Links

    Silat is a collective word for a class of indigenous martial arts from the geo-cultural area of Indonesia, more precisely in the Indonesian Archipelago, a region known locally as Nusantara. The origin of the word silat is uncertain. The Malay term silat is linked to Minangkabau word silek. Due to Sumatran origin of the Malay language, the Sumatran origin of the term is likely. The term the word Pencak comes from the Sundanese Penca, in the western part of Java is the origin of this martial art and has been played by the Sundanesefor centuries, until it exists in Central and East Java to be studied. Although the word silat is widely known throughout much of Southeast Asia, the term pencak silat is used mainly in Indonesia. Pencak silat was chosen in 1948 as a unifying term for the Indonesian fighting styles. It was a compound of the two most commonly used words for martial arts in Indonesia. Pencak was the term used by the Sundanese in western part of Java and also in the Central Jav...

    Origins

    The oral history of Indonesia begins with the mythical legend about the arrival of Aji Saka (lit. primordial king) from India to Java. At the request of the local people, he successfully killed the monarch Dewata Cengkar of Medang Kamulan in battle and took his place as ruler. This story traditionally marks the rise of Java and the dawn of its Dharmic civilisation. The tale also illustrates the influence India had on Indonesian and Southeast Asian culture in general. Aji Saka is shown to be a...

    Colonial era

    The lucrative spice trade eventually brought colonists from Europe, first the Portuguese followed by the Dutch and British. The Dutch East India Company became the dominant power and established full colonial rule in Indonesia. Local revolts and uprisings were common, but all were suppressed by the Dutch armed with guns and cannons. The Dutch brought in even more Chinese workers to Indonesia, which brought a greater variety of local kuntao systems. But while the Europeans could effectively ov...

    Modern era

    Conflict with the European rulers provided an impetus for the proliferation of new styles of pencak silat, now founded on the platform of nationalism and the desire for freedom from colonisation. The Indonesian Pencak Silat Association (IPSI) was founded in 1948 to bring all of Indonesia's pencak silat under a single administration. The world's oldest nationwide silat organisation, its basis is that all pencak silat is built on a common source, and that less functional styles must give way to...

    As with most ancient fighting arts, pencak silat historically prioritized weapons over unarmed combat. While this is usually not the case today, all pencak silat schools include weapons to some degree of importance. While pencak silat includes a wide array of weapons, the following are considered standard in all classical styles. In addition to these, many systems include a specialty or "secret" weapon taught only to advanced students. 1. Toya: Staff usually made of rattanbut sometimes wood or metal. Typically measures 5–6 feet long and 1.5-2 inches in diameter. 2. Tombak/Lembing: Spear or javelin made of bamboo, steel or wood that sometimes has horsehair attached near the blade. 3. Parang: Machete-like chopper, ranging from 10 to 36 inches long 4. Golok: Heavy cleaver measuring 10-20 inches long. The blade is heaviest in the centre 5. Pisau: Any short-bladed knife 6. Kris: Double-edged dagger made by folding different types of metal together and then washing it in acid. 7. Celurit:...

    Over 150 styles of pencak silat are recognised in Indonesia,although the actual number of existing systems is well beyond that. Older methods are typically identified with specific ethno-cultural groups or particular regions.

    Generalizations in pencak silat technique are very difficult; styles and movements are as diverse as the Indonesian archipelago itself. Individual disciplines can be offensive as in Aceh, evasive as in Bali, or somewhere in between. They may focus on strikes (pukulan), kicks (tendangan), locks (kuncian), weapons (senjata), or even on spiritual development rather than physical fighting techniques. Most styles specialize in one or two of these, but still make use of them all to some degree. Certain characteristics tend to prevail in particular geographical regions, as follows: 1. Kicks - West Sumatra, North Sumatra 2. Hands/Arms - Jakarta, West Java, Sulawesi, Kalimantan 3. Grappling - East Java, Sumatra 4. Strikes (hands and feet) - Bali, Central Java, Madura

    The major international competition is Pencak Silat World Championship, organised by PERSILAT.This competition takes place every 2 or 3 years period. More than 30 national teams competed in recent tournaments in Jakarta (2010), Chiang Rai (2012) and Phuket (2015). Pencak Silat competition categories consist of: 1. Tanding (Match) category 2. Tunggal (Single) category 3. Ganda (Double) category 4. Regu (Team) category

    Quintin Chambers and Donn F. Draeger (1979). Javanese Silat: The Fighting Art of Perisai Diri. ISBN 0-87011-353-4.
    Sean Stark (2007). Pencak Silat Pertempuran: Vol. 1. Stark Publishing. ISBN 978-0-615-13968-5.
    Sean Stark (2007). Pencak Silat Pertempuran: Vol. 2. Stark Publishing. ISBN 978-0-615-13784-1.
    O'ong Maryono (2002). Pencak Silat in the Indonesian Archipelago. ISBN 9799341604.
    • 2019 (14th session)
    • Indonesia
  2. English language - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › English_language

    19 hours ago · English is the largest language by number of speakers, and the third most-spoken native language in the world, after Standard Chinese and Spanish. It is the most widely learned second language and is either the official language or one of the official languages in almost 60 sovereign states.

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