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  1. The Kingdom of Lotharingia with Simon Winder | Dan Snow's ... › s › dansnowshistoryhit

    May 31, 2021 · Simon Winder's eclectic histories have ranged all over the Germanic countries, and he has concluded his Germania trilogy with Lotharingia, a book about the kingdom of Lothair, which was located mainly in the modern low countries, and stretched all the way to the Roman borderlands.

  2. Guelphs and Ghibellines - Wikipedia › wiki › Wars_of_the_Guelphs_and

    May 23, 2021 · The Guelphs and Ghibellines (/ ˈ ɡ w ɛ l f s ... ˈ ɡ ɪ b ɪ l aɪ n z /, also US: /-l iː n z,-l ɪ n z /; Italian: guelfi e ghibellini [ˈɡwɛlfi e ɡɡibelˈliːni; -fj e]) were factions supporting the Pope and the Holy Roman Emperor, respectively, in the Italian city-states of central and northern Italy.

  3. Matilda of Tuscany - Wikipedia › wiki › Mathilda_of_Canossa
    • Childhood
    • First Marriage
    • Widowhood
    • Investiture Controversy
    • Second Marriage
    • The Final Victory Against Henry IV
    • Vice-Queen of Italy
    • Foundation of Churches
    • Death
    • Legacy

    In a miniature in the early twelfth-century Vita Mathildis by the monk Donizo (or, in Italian, Donizone), Matilda is referred to as 'Resplendent Matilda' (Mathildis Lucens). Since the Latin word lucens is similar to lucensis (of/from Lucca), this may also be a reference to Matilda's origins. She was descended from the nobleman Sigifred of Lucca,and was the youngest of the three children of Margrave Boniface III of Tuscany, ruler of a substantial territory in Northern Italy and one of the most powerful vassals of the Holy Roman Emperor Henry III. Matilda's mother, Beatrice of Lorraine, was the Emperor's first cousin and closely connected to the imperial household. Renowned for her learning, Matilda was literate in Latin, as well as reputed to speak German and French. The extent of Matilda's education in military matters is debated. It has been asserted that she was taught strategy, tactics, riding and wielding weapons,but recent scholarship challenges these claims. Following the deat...

    In 1069, as Godfrey the Bearded lay dying in Verdun, Beatrice and Matilda hastened to reach Lorraine, anxious to ensure a smooth transition of power. Matilda was present at her stepfather's deathbed, and on that occasion she is for the first time clearly mentioned as the wife of her stepbrother, Godfrey the Hunchback, to whom she had been betrothed since childhood.The marriage proved a failure; the death of their only child (a daughter called Beatrice) shortly after birth in August 1071 and Godfrey's physical deformity may have helped fuel deep animosity between the spouses. By the end of 1071, Matilda had left her husband and returned to Tuscany. Matilda's bold decision to repudiate her husband came at a cost, but ensured her independence. Beatrice started preparing Matilda for rule by holding court jointly with her and, eventually, encouraging her to issue charters on her own as countess (comitissa) and duchess (ducatrix). Godfrey fiercely protested the separation and demanded tha...

    Matilda became a widow on 26 February 1076. Godfrey the Hunchback was assassinated in Flanders while "answering the call of nature". Having been accused of adultery with the Pope the previous month, Matilda was suspected of ordering her estranged husband's death. She could not have known about the proceedings at the Synod of Worms at the time, however, since the news took three months to reach the Pope himself, and it is more likely that Godfrey was killed at the instigation of an enemy nearer to him. Within two months, Beatrice was dead as well. Matilda's power was considerably augmented by these deaths; she was now the undisputed heir of all her parents' allodial lands. Her inheritance would have been threatened had Godfrey survived her mother, but she now enjoyed the privileged status of a widow. It seemed unlikely, however, that Henry would formally invest her with the margraviate. Between 1076 and 1080, Matilda travelled to Lorraine to lay claim to her husband's estate in Verdu...

    The disagreement between Pope Gregory VII and King Henry IV culminated in the aftermath of the Synod of Worms in February 1076. Gregory declared Henry excommunicated, releasing all his subjects from allegiance to him and providing the perfect reason for rebellion against his rule. Insubordinate southern German princes gathered in Trebur, awaiting the Pope. Matilda's first military endeavor, as well as the first major task altogether as ruler, turned out to be protecting the Pope during his perilous journey north. Gregory could rely on nobody else; as the sole heir to the Attonid patrimony, Matilda controlled all the Apennine passes and nearly all the rest that connected central Italy to the north. The Lombard bishops, who were also excommunicated for taking part in the synod and whose sees bordered Matilda's domain, were keen to capture Gregory. Gregory was aware of the danger, and recorded that all his advisors except Matilda counselled him against travelling to Trebur. Henry had o...

    In 1088 Matilda was facing a new attempt at invasion by Henry IV, and decided to pre-empt it by means of a political marriage. In 1089 Matilda (in her early forties) married Welf V, who was probably fifteen to seventeen years old. Welf was heir to the Duchy of Bavaria. He was also a member of the Welf dynasty: the Welfs/Guelphs were important papal supporters from the eleventh to the fifteenth centuries in their conflict with the German emperors (see Guelphs and Ghibellines). Matilda and Welf's wedding was part of a network of alliances approved by the new pope, Urban II, in order to effectively counter Henry IV. Cosmas of Prague (writing in the early twelfth century), included a letter in his Chronica Boemorum, which he claimed that Matilda sent to her future husband, but which is now thought to be spurious: 1. 1.1. Not for feminine lightness or recklessness, but for the good of all my kingdom, I send you this letter: agreeing to it, you take with it myself and the rule over the wh...

    After several victories, including one against the Saxons, Henry IV prepared in 1090 his third descent to Italy, in order to inflict the final defeat on the Church. His route was the usual one, Brenner and Verona, along the border of Matilda's possessions, which began outside the cities' gates. The opposing armies would meet near Mantua. Matilda secured the loyalty of the townspeople by exempting them from some taxes, such as teloneo and ripatico, and with the promise of Lombard franchise, entailing the rights to hunt, fish and cut wood on both banks of the Tartaroriver. The Mantua people stood by Matilda until the so-called "Holy Thursday betrayal", when the townspeople, won over by additional concessions from Henry, who had meanwhile besieged the city, sided with him. In 1092 Matilda escaped to the Reggiano Apennines and her most inexpugnable strongholds. Since the times of Adalbert Attothe power of the Canossa family had been based on a network of castles, fortresses and fortifie...

    Henry IV died now defeated in 1106; and after the deposition and death of Conrad (1101), his second son and new Holy Roman Emperor, Henry V, began to turn the fight against the Church and Italy. This time the attitude of Matilda against the imperial house had to change and she accepted the will of the Emperor. In 1111, on his way back to Germany, Henry V met her at the Castle of Bianello, near Reggio Emilia. Matilda confirmed him the inheritance rights over the fiefs that Henry IV disputed her, thus ending a fight that had lasted over twenty years. Henry V gave Matilda a new title: between 6 and 11 May 1111, the Emperor crowned Matilda as Imperial Vicar and Vice-Queen of Italy. This episode was the decisive step towards the Concordat of Worms.

    By legend Matilda of Canossa is said to have founded one hundred churches. Documents and local legend identify well over one hundred churches, monasteries, hospices, and bridges built or restored between the Alps and Rome by Matilda and her mother, Beatrice. Today, churches and monasteries in the regions of Lombardy, Emilia Romagna, Tuscany, and even the Veneto attribute their foundation to her. Built originally with hospices for travelers attached, these churches created a network that united the supporters of the Gregorian reform of the Roman Church which Matilda supported.This network also provided protection for pilgrims, merchants and travelers assisting the Renaissance in culture that occurred in the centuries after Matilda's death. Most of these churches continue today to be vital centers of their communities. They include rural churches located along the Po and Arno rivers, and their tributaries; churches built along the Apennine mountain passes which Matilda's family contro...

    Matilda's death from gout in 1115 at Bondeno di Roncore marked the end of an era in Italian politics. It is widely reported that she bequeathed her allodial property to the Pope. Unaccountably, however, this donation was never officially recognized in Rome and no record exists of it. Henry V had promised some of the cities in her territory that he would appoint no successor after he deposed her. In her place the leading citizens of these cities took control, and the era of the city-states in northern Italybegan. Matilda was at first buried in the Abbey of San Benedetto in Polirone, located in the town of San Benedetto Po; then, in 1633, at the behest of Pope Urban VIII, her body was moved to Rome and placed in Castel Sant'Angelo. Finally, in 1645 her remains were definitely deposited in the Vatican, where they now lie in St. Peter's Basilica. She is one of only six women who have the honor of being buried in the Basilica, the others being Queen Christina of Sweden, Maria Clementina...

    She has been posited by some critics as the origin of the mysterious "Matilda" who appears to Dante gathering flowers in the earthly paradise in Dante's Purgatorio. The story of Matilda and Henry IV is the main plot device in Luigi Pirandello's play Enrico IV. She is the main historical character in Kathleen McGowan's novel The Book of Love(Simon & Schuster, 2009).

  4. Lothair, MT - AARP › lothair-mt

    May 25, 2021 · Join or Renew Today. JOIN FOR JUST $16 A YEAR. Immediate access to your member benefits. Discounts on travel and everyday savings. Subscription to the award-winning AARP The Magazine. An ally on the issues that matter most to you in Lothair. Free membership for your spouse or partner. JOIN NOW.

  5. Middle Ages - Wikipedia › wiki › Mideval

    The Middle Ages is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity, the medieval period, and the modern period. The medieval period is itself subdivided into the Early, High, and Late Middle Ages . Population decline, counterurbanisation, the collapse of centralized authority, invasions, and mass ...

  6. Hildegard (c.758 - 783) - Genealogy › people › Hildegard-of-Vinzgouw

    Jun 05, 2021 · Född: 757 , Aachen, Rhnlnd, Prussia [no source] Hildegarde of Vinzgau Born: 758 She was the daughter of Gerald I of Savoy, Count of the Vinzgouw and Imma (Emma) of Allemania. [no source] Hildegarde Countess in Linzgau, Female, (758 - 30 April 783) was born in 758.

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