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  1. lot - Dictionary of English › definition › lot

    lot - WordReference English dictionary, questions, discussion and forums. All Free.

  2. Wartburg - Wikipedia › wiki › Wartburg

    Wartburg is located on a 410-meter (1,350 ft) precipice to the southwest of, and overlooking the town of Eisenach, in the state of Thuringia, Germany.The hill is an extension of Thuringian Forest, overlooking Mariental to the south-east and the valley of the Hörsel to the north, through which passed the historical Via Regia.

    • c. 1067
    • Wartberg
  3. If Jesus spoke to the Romans, does that mean he spoke Latin ... › If-Jesus-spoke-to-the-Romans-does

    No. It just means that they had a language in common (or the authors were glossing over the details the same way that all extraterrestrials speak English in Hollywood movies.

  4. Beretrude (d. 620) | › beretrude-d-620

    Beretrude (d. 620) Queen of Neustria and the Franks. Name variations: Bérétrude; Berthetrude; Bertrude. Died in 620 (some sources cite 610); married Chlothar also known as Clotaire or Lothair II (584–629), king of Neustria (r. 584–629), king of the Franks (r. 613–629); children: Dagobert I (c. 606–639), king of Austrasia (r. 623–628), king of the Franks (r. 629–639); Caribert or ...

  5. 1870 copy of LOTHAIR by the Right Honorable Benjamin Disraeli. Covers have MUCH wear on the edges & corners as well as scuffing & staining with part of the back cover coming loose - see photo 5. Pages have MUCH yellowing/fading with the pages edges becoming fragile.

    • New London, Iowa
    • What Was Vulgar Latin?
    • Phonology
    • Vocabulary
    • Grammar

    The name "vulgar" simply means "common"; it is derived from the Latin word vulgaris, meaning "common", or "of the people". "Vulgar Latin" to Latinists has a variety of meanings. 1. It means variation within Latin (socially, geographically, and chronologically) that differs from the perceived Classical literary standard. As such, it typically excludes the language of the more educated, upper-classes which, although it does include variation, comes closest to the perceived standard. 2. It means the spoken Latin of the Roman Empire. Classical Latin represents the literary register of Latin. It represented a selection from a variety of available spoken forms. The Latin brought by Roman soldiers to Gaul, Iberia or Dacia was not identical to the Latin of Cicero, and differed from it in vocabulary, syntax, and grammar. By this definition, Vulgar Latin was a spoken language and "late" Latin was used for writing, its general style being slightly different from earlier "classic" standards. 1....


    One profound change that affected every Romance language reordered the vowel system of classical Latin. Latin had ten distinct vowels: long and short versions of A, E, I, O, V, and three diphthongs, AE, OE and AV (four according to some, including VI). There were also long and short versions of the Greek borrowing, Y. At some time during the classical Latin period, all the vowels except [a] began to differ by quality as well as by length. The long vowels became more close, while the short vow...


    Palatalization of Latin /k/, /t/, and often /g/ was almost universal in vulgar Latin; the only Romance languages it did not affect were Dalmatian and some varieties of Sardinian. Thus Latin caelum ('sky', 'heaven'), pronounced /kaelu(m)/ beginning with /k/, became Italian cielo, /tʃɛlo/, French ciel, /sjɛl/, Catalan cel, /sɛl/, Spanish cielo, /θjelo/ or /sjelo/ (depending on dialect) and Portuguese céu, /'sɛu/, beginning with sibilant consonants. The former semivowels written in Latin as V as...

    Evidence of changes

    Evidence of these and other changes can be seen in the late third century Appendix Probi, a collection of glosses prescribing correct classical Latin forms for certain vulgar forms. These glosses describe: 1. a process of syncope, the loss of unstressed vowels (MASCVLVS NON MASCLVS); 2. the reduction of formerly syllabic /e/ and /i/ to /j/ (VINEA NON VINIA); 3. the levelling of the distinction between /o/ and /u/ (COLVBER NON COLOBER) and /e/ and /i/ (DIMIDIVS NON DEMEDIVS); 4. regularization...

    Certain words from Classical Latin were dropped from the vocabulary. Classical equus, "horse", was consistently replaced by caballus (but note Romanian iapă, Sardinian èbba, Spanish yegua, Catalan egua and Portuguese égua all meaning "mare" and deriving from Classical equa). Classical aequor, "sea", yielded to mareuniversally. A very partial listing of words that are exclusively Classical, and those that were productive in Romance, is to be found in the table to the right. Some of these words, dropped in Romance, were borrowed back as learned words from Latin itself. The vocabulary changes affected even the basic grammatical particles of Latin; there are many that vanish without a trace in Romance, such as an, at, autem, donec, enim, ergo, etiam, haud, igitur, ita, nam, postquam, quidem, quin, quod, quoque, sed, utrum, and vel. On the other hand, since Vulgar Latin and Latin proper were for much of their history different registers of the same language, rather than different languag...

    The Romance articles

    It is difficult to place the point in which the definite article, absent in Latin but present in some form in all of the Romance languages, arose; largely because the highly colloquial speech it arose in seldom was written until the daughter languages had strongly diverged; most surviving texts in early Romance show the articles fully developed. Definite articles formerly were demonstrative pronouns or adjectives; compare the fate of the Latin demonstrative adjective ille, illa, (illud), in t...

    Gender: loss of the neuter

    The three grammatical genders of Classical Latin were replaced by a two-gender system in the Romance languages (though see below). In Latin gender is partly a matter of agreement, i.e. certain nouns take certain forms of the adjectives and pronouns, and partly a matter of inflection, i.e. there are different paradigms associated with the masculine/feminine on the one hand and the neuter on the other. The classical Latin neuter was normally absorbed by the masculine both syntactically and morp...

    The loss of the noun case system

    The sound changes that were occurring in Vulgar Latin made the noun case system of Classical Latin harder to sustain, and ultimately spelled doom for the system of Latin declensions. As a result of the untenability of the noun case system after these phonetic changes, vulgar Latin moved from being a markedly synthetic language to a more analytic language where word order is a necessary element of syntax. Consider what the loss of final /m/, the loss of phonemic vowel length, and the sound shi...

  6. Emma of Bavaria (d. 876) | › women › encyclopedias

    Emma of Bavaria (d. 876)Queen of the Germans. Died in 876; daughter of Welf of Bavaria and Heilwig ; sister of Judith of Bavaria (802–843); married Louis II the German (804–876), king of the Germans (r. 843–876); children: Carloman of Bavaria (c. 828–880); Louis the Young (b. around 835), king of the East Franks, king of Saxony (r.

  7. Would a Roman understand Latin spoken by a Latin scholar ... › Would-a-Roman-understand-Latin

    I am not a Roman and I don't speak Latin (just know plenty of the grammar a several words for etymology purposes). But I speak Spanish and I struggle to identify some words when hearing someone who speaks English (simply because that's the ones I ...

  8. François de Chateaubriand - Poetry In Translation › PITBR › Chateaubriand

    Alfonso II, d’Este, Duke of Ferrara. 1533-1597. Duke of Ferrara 1559-1597, he was the son of Ercole II d'Este and Renée de France, the daughter of Louis XII of France and Anne of Brittany. As a young man, he fought in the service of Henry II of France, fighting against the Habsburgs.

  9. Masculine Names (page 27) - Behind the Name › names › gender

    A list of names in which the gender is masculine (page 27). Lorne m English From the title Marquis of Lorne, which was based on the Scottish place name Lorne, itself possibly derived from the name of the legendary king of Dál Riata, Loarn mac Eirc.

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