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  1. Kingdoms of Germany - Thuringia

    www.historyfiles.co.uk/.../GermanyThuringia.htm

    The daughter of Giso IV, Hedwig of Gudensberg, now marries the soon-to-be Count Louis III of Thuringia. 1123 - 1130: Louis III: Son of Louis II. m dau of last Count of Gudensberg in Hesse. 1130: Louis is raised to the rank of landgrave by HRE Lothair II. The reason is unclear, but the Ludovingians have been amassing territories and becoming more powerful, and the emperor spends much of his reign in need of support.

  2. Louis III, Landgrave of Thuringia, nicknamed Louis the Pious or Louis the Mild was a German nobleman. He was a member of the Ludowingians dynasty and was the ruling Landgrave of Thuringia from 1172 until his death.

  3. Kingdoms of Germany - Hesse

    www.historyfiles.co.uk/KingListsEurope/GermanyHe...

    Count Louis III is raised to the rank of landgrave as Louis I, and his Thuringia is recognised as overlord by the Hessians. This unites Hesse and Thuringia from 1130-1247, clearly to the detriment of Hesse's traditional link with Franconia. 1140 - 1172: Louis II the Iron: Landgrave of Thuringia & Count of Gudensberg.? Henry Raspe II

  4. Siege of Acre (1189–1191) - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/God's_Own_Catapult

    Germans under Louis III, Landgrave of Thuringia, and Otto I of Guelders and Italians under Archbishop Gerhard of Ravenna and Bishop Adelard of Verona also arrived. Louis of Thuringia was able to convince Conrad, his mother's cousin, to send troops from Tyre as well. Armenian troops under Leo II of Cilicia also took part in the siege.

  5. Siege of Acre (1189–1191) | Military Wiki | Fandom

    military.wikia.org/wiki/Siege_of_Acre_(1189–1191)
    • Background
    • Tyre
    • Beginning of The Siege
    • Battle of Acre
    • The Double Siege
    • The Kings at Acre
    • Execution of The Prisoners
    • Aftermath

    Egypt was ruled by the Shi'ite Fatimid dynasty from 969, independent from the Sunni Abbasid rulers in Baghdad and with a rival Shi'ite caliph—that is successor to the Muslim prophet Mohammad. Governance fell to the caliph's chief administrator called the vizier. From 1121 the system fell into murderous political intrigue and Egypt declined from its previous affluent state. This encouraged Baldwin III of Jerusalem to plan an invasion that was only halted by the payment by Egypt of a tribute of 160,000 gold dinars. In 1163 the deposed vizier, Shawar, visited Zengi's son and successor, Nur ad-Din, atabeg of Aleppo in Damascus seeking political and military support. Some historians have considered Nur ad-Din's support as a visionary attempt to surround the Crusaders, but in practice he prevaricated before only responding when it became clear that the Crusaders might gain an unassailable foothold on the Nile. Nur al-Din sent his Kurdish general, Shirkuh, who stormed Egypt and restored Sh...

    In Tyre, Conrad of Montferrat had entrenched himself and had successfully resisted Saladin's assault at the end of 1187. The sultan then turned his attention to other tasks, but then tried to negotiate the surrender of the city by treaty, as in mid-1188 the first reinforcements from Europe arrived at Tyre by sea. Under the terms of the treaty, Saladin would, among other things, release King Guy, whom he had captured at Hattin. This would have escalated the conflict between Guy, who was blamed for the catastrophe of Hattin, and Conrad, who had successfully defended Tyre from the subsequent invasion. Guy was released and appeared before Tyre, but Conrad would not let him in, claiming that he was administering it until the kings should arrive from across the sea to settle the succession. This was in accordance with Baldwin IV's will: he was the nearest paternal kinsman of Baldwin V. Guy left before appearing once again outside Tyre with his wife Queen Sibylla, who held the legal title...

    The port of Acre lay on a peninsula in the Gulf of Haifa. East of the old part of the city was the port, protected against the open sea, while to the west and south the coast was protected by a strong dyke wall. The peninsula was guarded on the mainland side by double barrier reinforced with towers. As one of Saladin's main garrison nodes and arms depots, the force defending Acre was significant, consisting of several thousand troops. Guy's army consisted of 7,000–9,000 infantry and 400–700 knights.Hattin had left the Kingdom of Jerusalem with few troops left to call upon. In such a scenario, Guy was totally dependent on aid from the plethora of small armies and fleets descending on the Levant from around Europe. Initially Guy tried to surprise the garrison with an assault on the walls, but this failed and Guy established his camp outside the city, to wait for reinforcements, which began to arrive by sea a few days later. A Danish and Frisian fleet replaced that of the Sicilians, wh...

    On 4 October 1189, Saladin moved to the east of the city to confront Guy's camp. The Crusader army had grown to 30,000 infantry and 2,000 cavalry through reinforcements by the end of September. A Christian fleet of at least 102 ships blockaded the city. The Muslim army consisted of troops from Egypt, Turkestan, Syria, and Mesopotamia. The Muslims lay in a semicircle east of the city facing inwards towards Acre. The Crusader army lay in between, with lightly armed crossbowmen in the first line and the heavy cavalry in second. At the later Battle of Arsuf the Christians fought coherently; here the battle began with a disjointed combat between the Templarsand Saladin's right wing. The Crusaders were so successful that the enemy had to send reinforcements from other parts of the field. Thus the steady advance of the Christian centre against Saladin's own corps, in which the crossbows prepared the way for the charge of the men-at-arms, met with no great resistance. Saladin's centre and r...

    During the autumn, more European Crusaders arrived, allowing Guy to blockade Acre by land. News of the imminent arrival of Emperor Frederick Barbarossareached the Crusaders, which not only raised the morale of the Christian soldiers, but also compelled Saladin to bring in so many more troops that he was able to surround both the city and the Crusader camp in two separate sieges. On 30 October, 50 Muslim galleys broke through the Christian sea blockade and reinforced the city with the crews of the ships, some 10,000 men, as well as food and weapons. On 17 December, an Egyptian fleet arrived to re-establish control over the port and the road leading to it. In March 1190, when the weather was better, Conrad travelled to Tyre on his own ship and soon returned with supplies for the Crusaders, which helped the resistance against the Egyptian fleet on the shore. The building materials brought by Conrad were constructed into siege machinery, although these machines were lost when the Crusad...

    King Philip arrived on 20 April 1191, and King Richard on 8 June, after he had used the opportunity to conquer Cyprus along the way. Richard I arrived with an English fleet of 100 ships (which carried 8,000 men) while Philip II arrived with a Genoese fleet under Simone Doria. Philip had used the time before Richard's arrival to build siege engines like the trebuchet, and now that stronger leadership from Europe had arrived, it was the city and not the Christian camp that was besieged. When Richard arrived, he sought a meeting with Saladin, and an armistice of three days was agreed upon so that the meeting could take place. However, both Richard and Philip fell ill, and the meeting did not take place. King Philip was eager to launch a siege on Acre, but King Richard was not ready to go along with the plan because he was still ill and some of his men had not arrived yet due to adverse winds. They hoped that the latter would arrive with the next fleet of ships and would bring material...

    It was now up to Richard and Saladin to finalize the surrender of the city. The Christians began to rebuild Acre's defenses, and Saladin collected money to pay for the ransom of the imprisoned garrison. On 11 August, Saladin delivered the first of the three planned payments and prisoner exchanges, but Richard rejected this because certain Christian nobles were not included. The exchange was broken off and further negotiations were unsuccessful. Richard had also insisted on the handover of Philip's share of the prisoners, whom the French king had entrusted to his kinsman Conrad of Montferrat. Conrad reluctantly agreed, under pressure. On 20 August, Richard thought that Saladin had delayed too much, and had 2,700 of the Muslim prisoners from the garrison of Acre decapitated. Saladin responded in kind, killing all of the Christian prisoners he had captured. On 22 August, Richard and his army left the city, given in custody to the crusaders Bertram de Verdun and Stephen Longchamp.

    The Crusader army marched south, with the sea to their right and Saladin's army following them to their left. On 7 September, they met at the Battle of Arsuf, north of Jaffa, in which Saladin was defeated. Richard captured Jaffa on 10 September, but throughout the remainder of 1191 and into the summer of 1192, he was unable to realize his ultimate goal of recapturing Jerusalem. The dispute over the kingship of Jerusalem was resolved in April 1192, with the election of Conrad of Montferrat, but he was assassinated only days after his victory. The pregnant Queen Isabella was quickly married to Richard and Philip's nephew, Henry of Champagne. Meanwhile, Richard was informed that his brother, John Lackland, was attempting to usurp the throne in England. He arranged for a treaty with Saladin, and the Third Crusade came to an end when Richard left for England in late October. Philip of France meanwhile had come to terms with John and had closed the French harbours; Richard was forced to m...

  6. Kingdoms of Germany - Bavaria (Bavarii)

    www.historyfiles.co.uk/KingListsEurope/Germany...

    The County Palatine of Saxony is given to Louis III, landgrave of Thuringia (he promptly passes it onto his brother, the future Landgrave Herman I, in 1881). Following standard German practice, territory is often sub-divided between brothers, with one always being dominant, and the Bavarians and Saxons were no different.

  7. Germany, the Stem Duchies & Marches

    friesian.com/germany.htm

    Louis III: Landgrave, 1123-1140: Louis IV the Iron ... As the Stem Duchies formed, Thuringia was one of the ... secured recognition of independence and sovereignty in ...

  8. Kingdoms of Germany - Saxony (Saxons)

    www.historyfiles.co.uk/KingListsEurope...

    The duchies of Brunswick and Lüneburg remain under the control of the Welfs, while the County Palatine of Saxony is handed to Louis III, landgrave of Thuringia (he promptly passes it onto his brother, the future Landgrave Herman I, in 1881).

  9. thüringen Historischer Überblick englisch

    www.lzt-thueringen.de/files/hueringen-englisch.pdf

    In 1131, Louis I (1131–1140) was en-feoffed with the newly established hon-ors of a Thuringian landgrave by the Holy Roman Emperor Lothar of Sup-plinburg. The Ludowingians, who were supposed to consolidate the peace and ensure sovereignty, soon counted to the most powerful rulers amongst the imperial princes. Louis II (1140–1172)

  10. Kingdoms of Germany - The Holy Roman Empire

    historyfiles.co.uk/KingListsEurope/GermanyHRE.htm

    Louis the Younger dies and Charles, as the last remaining of the three brothers, inherits his territories of Bavaria, Franconia, Saxony, and Thuringia, thereby reuniting East Francia following its division in 876. It must be Charles who appoints Henry of Babenberg, his right-hand man, as the acting count of Franconia. 888

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