Louis IV (German: Ludwig; 1 April 1282 – 11 October 1347), called the Bavarian, of the house of Wittelsbach, was King of the Romans from 1314, King of Italy from 1327, and Holy Roman Emperor from 1328.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_IV,_Holy_Roman_Emperor
Louis IV (September 920 / September 921 – 10 September 954), called d'Outremer or Transmarinus (both meaning "from overseas"), reigned as king of West Francia from 936 to 954. A member of the Carolingian dynasty, he was the only son of king Charles the Simple and his second wife Eadgifu of Wessex, daughter of King Edward the Elder of Wessex.
Jan 01, 2021 · Louis IV, byname Louis d’Outremer (Louis from Overseas), (born 921—died Sept. 10, 954, Reims, France), king of France from 936 to 954 who spent most of his reign struggling against his powerful vassal Hugh the Great.
- Early Life
- First Marriage
- Military Career
- Second Marriage
Louis was born at the Prinz-Karl-Palais in Darmstadt, the capital of the Grand Duchy of Hesse and by Rhine in the German Confederation, the first son and child of Prince Charles of Hesse and by Rhine (23 April 1809 – 20 March 1877) and Princess Elisabeth of Prussia (18 June 1815 – 21 March 1885), granddaughter of King Frederick William II of Prussia. As his father's elder brother Louis III (1806-1877), the reigning Grand Duke of Hesse and by Rhine, had been married to his first wife since 1833 without legitimate children and from 1868 was married morganatically,Prince Louis was from birth second-in-line to the grand ducal throne, after his father.
On 1 July 1862, Louis married Princess Alice, a daughter of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom, at Osborne House on the Isle of Wight. On the day of the wedding, the Queen issued a royal warrant granting her new son-in-law the style of Royal Highness in the United Kingdom. The Queen also subsequently made Prince Louis a knight of the Order of the Garter. The Official Digital Toolset for Dungeons & DragonsFandom may earn an affiliate commission on sales made from links on this page.Although an arranged marriage orchestrated by the bride's father Albert, Prince Consort, the couple did have a brief period of courtship before betrothal and wed willingly, even after the death of the Prince Consort left Queen Victoria in a protracted state of grief that cast a pall over the nuptials. Becoming parents in less than a year following their marriage, the young royal couple found themselves strapped financially to maintain the lifestyle expected of their rank. Princess Alice's interest in soc...
During the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, Louis commanded the Hessian cavalry in support of the Austrian side. In the 1870-71 Franco-Prussian War, Louis led the Hessian contingent of the armies of the North German Confederation.
Grand Duchess Alice having died in 1878, Louis IV contracted a morganatic marriage on 30 April 1884 in Darmstadt (on the eve of the wedding of his eldest daughter, for which Queen Victoria and other relatives of his first wife were gathered in the Hessian capital) with Countess Alexandrina Hutten-Czapska (3 September 1854 – 8 May 1941), daughter of Count Adam Hutten-Czapski and Countess Marianna Rzewuska. She was the former wife of Aleksander von Kolemin, the Russian chargé d'affaires in Darmstadt. But the couple, facing objections from the Grand Duke's in-laws, separated within a week and the marriage was annulled within three months. As a compensation, she received the title Countess von Romrodon 31 May 1884. Alexandrine later married for the third time to Basil von Bacheracht.
Grand Duke Ludwig IV died on 13 March 1892 of a heart attack in the New Palace in Darmstadt and was succeeded by his son, Ernest Louis.His remains are buried at Rosenhöhe, the mausoleum for the Grand Ducal House outside of Darmstadt.
Louis IV (German: Ludwig IV; 12 September 1837 – 13 March 1892) was the Grand Duke of Hesse and by Rhine, reigning from 13 June 1877 until his death.Through his own and his children's marriages he was connected to the British Royal Family, to the Imperial House of Russia and to other reigning dynasties of Europe.NameBirthDeathNotes5 April 186324 September 1950m. 30 April 1884 Prince Louis of Battenberg, later Marquess of Milford-Haven (24 May 1854-11 September 1921); 2 sons, 2 daughters (including Queen Louise of Sweden). She was the maternal grandmother of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, consort of Queen Elizabeth II.1 November 186418 July 1918Took the name Yelisaveta Fyodorovna on her baptism into the Russian Orthodox Church; m. 15 June 1884 Grand Duke Sergei Alexandrovich of Russia (11 May 1857-17 February 1905), the seventh child and fifth son of Tsar Alexander II of Russia; had no issue11 July 186611 November 1953m. 24 May 1888 Prince Henry of Prussia (14 August 1862-20 April 1929), son of Frederick III, German Emperor; had 3 sons. Irene passed hemophilia on to two of her three sons: Prince Waldemar of Prussia and Prince Henry of Prussia.25 November 18689 October 1937Succeeded as Grand Duke of Hesse and by Rhine, 13 March 1892 abdicated 9 November 1918; m. (1), 9 April 1894 his first cousin Princess Victoria Melita of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (25 November 1876-2 March 1936); 1 son (stillborn) and 1 daughter, div. 21 December 1901. m. (2), 2 February 1905, Princess Eleonore of Solms-Hohensolms-Lich (17 September 1871-16 November 1937); 2 sons.
- Early Reign as Duke of Upper Bavaria
- Election as German King and Conflict with Habsburg
- Coronation as Holy Roman Emperor and Conflict with The Pope
- Imperial Privileges
- Dynastic Policy
- Conflict with Luxemburg
- Family and Children
- External Links
Louis was born in Munich, the son of Louis II, Duke of Upper Bavaria and Count Palatine of the Rhine, and Matilda, a daughter of King Rudolph I. Though Louis was partly educated in Vienna and became co-regent of his brother Rudolf I in Upper Bavaria in 1301 with the support of his Habsburg mother and her brother, King Albert I, he quarrelled with the Habsburgs from 1307 over possessions in Lower Bavaria. A civil war against his brother Rudolf due to new disputes on the partition of their lands was ended in 1313, when peace was made at Munich. In the same year, on November 9, Louis defeated his Habsburg cousin Frederick the Fair who was further aided by duke Leopold I. Originally, he was a friend of Frederick, with whom he had been raised. However, armed conflict arose when the guardianship over the young Dukes of Lower Bavaria (Henry XIV, Otto IV, and Henry XV) was entrusted to Frederick, even though the late Duke Otto III, the former King of Hungary, had chosen Louis. On 9 November...
Template:Unreferenced sectionThe death of Holy Roman Emperor Henry VII in August 1313 necessitated the election of a successor. Henry's son John, King of Bohemia since 1310, seemed too powerful to most prince-electors, opening the door for other candidates. The most likely choice was Frederick the Fair, the son of Henry's predecessor, Albert I, of the House of Habsburg. In reaction, the pro-Luxemburg party among the prince electorssettled on Louis as its candidate to prevent Frederick's election. On 19 October 1314, Archbishop Henry II Cologne chaired an assembly of four electors assembled at Sachsenhausen, south of Frankfurt. Participants were Louis's brother, Rudolph I of the Palatinate, who objected to the election of his younger brother, Duke Rudolph I of Saxe-Wittenberg, and Henry of Carinthia, whom the Luxemburgs had deposed as King of Bohemia. These four elector chose Frederick as King. The Luxemburg party did not accept this election and the next day a second election was he...
After the reconciliation with the Habsburgs in 1326, Louis marched to Italy and was crowned King of Italy in Milan in 1327. Already in 1323 Louis had sent an army to Italy to protect Milan against the Kingdom of Naples, which was together with France the strongest ally of the papacy. But now the Lord of Milan Galeazzo I Viscontiwas deposed since he was suspected of conspiring with the pope. In January 1328 Louis entered Rome and had himself crowned emperor by the aged senator Sciarra Colonna, called captain of the Roman people. Three months later Louis published a decree declaring "Jacque de Cahors" (Pope John XXII) deposed on grounds of heresy. He then installed a Spiritual Franciscan, Pietro Rainalducci, as Nicholas V, but both left Rome in August 1328. In the meantime Robert, King of Naples had sent both a fleet and an army against Louis and his ally Peter II of Sicily. Louis spent the winter 1328/29 in Pisa and stayed then in Northern Italy until his co-ruler Frederick of Habsbu...
Louis IV was a protector of the Teutonic Knights. In 1337 he allegedly bestowed upon the Teutonic Order a privilege to conquer Lithuania and Russia, although the Order had only petitioned for three small territories.Later he forbade the Order to stand trial before foreign courts in their territorial conflicts with foreign rulers. Louis concentrated his energies also on the economic development of the cities of the empire, so his name can be found in many city chronicles for the privileges he granted. In 1330 the emperor for example permitted the Frankfurt Trade Fair, and in 1340 Lübeck, as the most powerful member of the future Hanseatic League, received the coinage prerogative for golden gulden.
In 1323 Louis gave Brandenburg as a fiefdom to his eldest son Louis V after the Brandenburg branch of the House of Ascania had died out. With the Treaty of Pavia in 1329 the emperor reconciled the sons of his late brother Rudolph and returned the Palatinate to his nephews Rudolf and Rupert. After the death of Henry of Bohemia the duchy of Carinthia was released as an imperial fief on 2 May 1335 in Linz to his Habsburg cousins Albert II, Duke of Austria and Otto, Duke of Austria, while Tyrolwas first placed into Luxemburg hands. With the death of duke John I in 1340 Louis inherited Lower Bavaria and then reunited the duchy of Bavaria. John's mother, a member of the Luxemburg dynasty, had to return to Bohemia. In 1342 Louis also acquired Tyrol for the Wittelsbach by voiding the first marriage of Margarete Maultasch with John Henry of Bohemiaand marrying her to his own son Louis V, thus alienating the House of Luxemburg even more. In 1345 the emperor further antagonized the lay princes...
The acquisition of these territories and his restless foreign policy had earned Louis many enemies among the German princes. In the summer of 1346 the Luxemburg Charles IV was elected rival king, with the support of Pope Clement VI. Louis himself obtained much support from the Imperial Free Cities and the knights and successfully resisted Charles, who was widely regarded as a papal puppet ("rex clericorum" as William of Ockham called him). Also the Habsburg dukes stayed loyal to Louis. In the Battle of Crécy Charles' father John of Luxemburgwas killed; Charles himself also took part in the battle but escaped. But then Louis' sudden death avoided a longer civil war. Louis died in October 1347 from a stroke suffered during a bear-hunt in Puch near Fürstenfeldbruck. He is buried in the Frauenkirche in Munich. The sons of Louis supported Günther von Schwarzburg as new rival king to Charles but finally joined the Luxemburg party after Günther's early death in 1349 and divided the Wittels...
In 1308 Louis IV married his first wife, Beatrix of Świdnica. Their children were: 1. Mathilde (aft. 21 June 1313 – 2 July 1346, Meißen), married at Nuremberg 1 July 1329 Frederick II, Margrave of Meissen(d. 1349) 2. Daughter (end September 1314 – died shortly after). 3. Louis V the Brandenburger (July 1316 – 17/18 September 1361), duke of Upper Bavaria, margrave of Brandenburg, count of Tyrol 4. Anna (c. July 1317 – 29 January 1319, Kastl) 5. Agnes (c. 1318 – died shortly after). 6. Stephen II (autumn 1319 – 19 May 1375), duke of Lower Bavaria In 1324 he married his second wife, Margaret II, Countess of Hainaut and Holland.Their children were: 1. Margaret (1325 – 1374), married: 1.1. in 1351 in Ofen Stephen, Duke of Slavonia (d. 1354), son of the King Charles I of Hungary; 1.2. 1357/58 Gerlach von Hohenlohe. 2. Anna (c. 1326 – 3 June 1361, Fontenelles) married John I of Lower Bavaria(d. 1340). 3. Louis VI the Roman(7 May 1328 – 17 May 1365), duke of Upper Bavaria, elector of Brande...
Cox, Eugene L. (1967). The Green Count of Savoy. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. Template:Citation/identifier.
Charter given by Louis to the Hospital of the Holy Spirit in Nuremberg taken from the collections of the LBA Marburg
- 5 April 1282 Munich
- Rudolf I
- Matilda of Habsburg
- 1301 – 11 October 1347
Frankish Monarch. Also known by the nickname d'Outre-Mer or Transmarinus. Son of King Charles III the Simplex and his second wife Edgiva of Wessex, the older sister of Edith of Wessex. He spend his childhood with his mother at his grandfathers court in England. She had fled there after the Duke of Vermandois had...
- 10 Sep 920, Laon, Departement de l'Aisne, Picardie, France
- Buried near Saint Remi
- 10 Sep 954 (aged 34), Reims, Departement de la Marne, Champagne-Ardenne, France
- Saint Remi Basilica, Reims, Departement de la Marne, Champagne-Ardenne, France
Louis IV (10 September 920 – 30 September 954), called d'Outremer or Transmarinus (both meaning "from overseas"), reigned as king of France from 936 to 954. He was a member of the Carolingian dynasty, the son of Charles III and Eadgifu of England, a daughter of King Edward the Elder.
Louis XIII, King of France, 1615 . Louis XIII was the Son of Henri IV and Marie de' Medici and the father of Louis XIV. He came to the throne in 1610...
Louis XIV, byname Louis the Great, Louis the Grand Monarch, or the Sun King, French Louis le Grand, Louis le Grand Monarque, or le Roi Soleil, (born September 5, 1638, Saint-Germain-en-Laye, France—died September 1, 1715, Versailles, France), king of France (1643–1715) who ruled his country, principally from his great palace at Versailles, during one of its most brilliant periods and who remains the symbol of absolute monarchy of the classical age.