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  1. Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_IV,_Holy_Roman_Emperor

    Louis IV (German: Ludwig; 1 April 1282 – 11 October 1347), called the Bavarian, of the house of Wittelsbach, was King of the Romans from 1314, King of Italy from 1327, and Holy Roman Emperor from 1328. Louis IV was Duke of Upper Bavaria from 1294/1301 together with his elder brother Rudolf I, served as Margrave of Brandenburg until 1323, as ...

  2. Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor — Wikipedia Republished // WIKI 2

    wiki2.org/en/Louis_IV,_Holy_Roman_Emperor
    • Early Reign as Duke of Upper Bavaria
    • Election as German King and Conflict with Habsburg
    • Coronation as Holy Roman Emperor and Conflict with The Pope
    • Imperial Privileges
    • Dynastic Policy
    • Conflict with Luxemburg
    • Family and Children
    • References
    • External Links

    Louis was born in Mu­nich, the son of Louis II, Duke of Upper Bavaria and Count Pala­tine of the Rhine, and Matilda, a daugh­ter of King Rudolph I. Though Louis was partly ed­u­cated in Vi­enna and be­came co-re­gent of his brother Rudolf I in Upper Bavaria in 1301 with the sup­port of his Hab­s­burg mother and her brother, King Al­bert I, he quar­relled with the Hab­s­burgs from 1307 over pos­ses­sions in Lower Bavaria. A civil war against his brother Rudolf due to new dis­putes on the par­ti­tion of their lands was ended in 1313, when peace was made at Mu­nich. In the same year, on No­vem­ber 9, Louis de­feated his Hab­s­burg cousin Fred­er­ick the Fair who was fur­ther aided by duke Leopold I. Orig­i­nally, he was a friend of Fred­er­ick, with whom he had been raised. How­ever, armed con­flict arose when the guardian­ship over the young Dukes of Lower Bavaria (Henry XIV, Otto IV, and Henry XV) was en­trusted to Fred­er­ick, even though the late Duke Otto III, the for­mer King of...

    The death of Holy Roman Em­peror Henry VII in Au­gust 1313 ne­ces­si­tated the elec­tion of a suc­ces­sor. Henry's son John, King of Bo­hemia since 1310, seemed too pow­er­ful to most prince-elec­tors, open­ing the door for other can­di­dates. The most likely choice was Fred­er­ick the Fair, the son of Henry's pre­de­ces­sor, Al­bert I, of the House of Hab­s­burg. In re­ac­tion, the pro-Lux­em­burg party among the prince elec­torsset­tled on Louis as its can­di­date to pre­vent Fred­er­ick's elec­tion. On 19 Oc­to­ber 1314, Arch­bishop Henry II Cologne chaired an as­sem­bly of four elec­tors as­sem­bled at Sach­sen­hausen, south of Frank­furt. Par­tic­i­pants were Louis' brother, Rudolph I of the Palati­nate, who ob­jected to the elec­tion of his younger brother, Duke Rudolph I of Saxe-Wit­ten­berg, and Henry of Carinthia, whom the Lux­em­burgs had de­posed as King of Bo­hemia. These four elec­tor chose Fred­er­ick as King. The Lux­em­burg party did not ac­cept this elec­tion and th...

    After the rec­on­cil­i­a­tion with the Hab­s­burgs in 1326, Louis marched to Italy and was crowned King of Italy in Milan in 1327. Al­ready in 1323, Louis had sent an army to Italy to pro­tect Milan against the King­dom of Naples, which was to­gether with France the strongest ally of the pa­pacy. But now the Lord of Milan Galeazzo I Vis­contiwas de­posed since he was sus­pected of con­spir­ing with the pope. In Jan­u­ary 1328, Louis en­tered Rome and had him­self crowned em­peror by the aged sen­a­tor Scia­rra Colonna, called cap­tain of the Roman people. Three months later, Louis pub­lished a de­cree de­clar­ing Pope John XXII (Jacques Duèze) de­posed on grounds of heresy. He then in­stalled a Spir­i­tual Fran­cis­can, Pietro Rainal­ducci as Nicholas V, but both left Rome in Au­gust 1328. In the mean­time, Robert, King of Naples had sent both a fleet and an army against Louis and his ally Fred­er­ick II of Sicily. Louis spent the win­ter 1328/29 in Pisa and stayed then in North­ern...

    Louis IV was a pro­tec­tor of the Teu­tonic Knights. In 1337 he al­legedly be­stowed upon the Teu­tonic Order a priv­i­lege to con­quer Lithua­nia and Rus­sia, al­though the Order had only pe­ti­tioned for three small territories.Later he for­bade the Order to stand trial be­fore for­eign courts in their ter­ri­to­r­ial con­flicts with for­eign rulers. Louis con­cen­trated his en­er­gies also on the eco­nomic de­vel­op­ment of the cities of the em­pire, so his name can be found in many city chron­i­cles for the priv­i­leges he granted. In 1330 the em­peror for ex­am­ple per­mit­ted the Frank­furt Trade Fair, and in 1340 Lübeck, as the most pow­er­ful mem­ber of the fu­ture Hanseatic League, re­ceived the coinage pre­rog­a­tive for golden gulden.

    In 1323 Louis gave Bran­den­burg as a fief­dom to his el­dest son Louis V after the Bran­den­burg branch of the House of As­ca­nia had died out. With the Treaty of Pavia in 1329 the em­peror rec­on­ciled the sons of his late brother Rudolph and re­turned the Palati­nate to his nephews Rudolf and Ru­pert. After the death of Henry of Bo­hemia the duchy of Carinthia was re­leased as an im­pe­r­ial fief on 2 May 1335 in Linz to his Hab­s­burg cousins Al­bert II, Duke of Aus­tria and Otto, Duke of Aus­tria, while Tyrolwas first placed into Lux­em­burg hands. With the death of duke John I in 1340 Louis in­her­ited Lower Bavaria and then re­united the duchy of Bavaria. John's mother, a mem­ber of the Lux­em­burg dy­nasty, had to re­turn to Bo­hemia. In 1342 Louis also ac­quired Tyrol for the Wit­tels­bach by void­ing the first mar­riage of Mar­garete Maultasch with John Henry of Bo­hemiaand mar­ry­ing her to his own son Louis V, thus alien­at­ing the House of Lux­em­burg even more. In 1345...

    The ac­qui­si­tion of these ter­ri­to­ries and his rest­less for­eign pol­icy had earned Louis many en­e­mies among the Ger­man princes. In the sum­mer of 1346 the Lux­em­burg Charles IV was elected rival king, with the sup­port of Pope Clement VI. Louis him­self ob­tained much sup­port from the Im­pe­r­ial Free Cities and the knights and suc­cess­fully re­sisted Charles, who was widely re­garded as a papal pup­pet ("rex cleri­co­rum" as William of Ock­ham called him). Also the Hab­s­burg dukes stayed loyal to Louis. In the Bat­tle of Crécy Charles' fa­ther John of Lux­em­burgwas killed; Charles him­self also took part in the bat­tle but es­caped. But then Louis' sud­den death avoided a longer civil war. Louis died in Oc­to­ber 1347 from a stroke suf­fered dur­ing a bear-hunt in Puch near Fürsten­feld­bruck. He is buried in the Frauenkirche in Mu­nich. The sons of Louis sup­ported Günther von Schwarzburg as new rival king to Charles but fi­nally joined the Lux­em­burg party after Gü...

    In 1308 Louis IV mar­ried his first wife, Beat­rix of Świd­nica(1290-1320). Their chil­dren were: 1. Mathilde (aft. 21 June 1313 – 2 July 1346, Meißen), married at Nuremberg 1 July 1329 Frederick II, Margrave of Meissen(d. 1349) 2. Daughter (end September 1314 – died shortly after). 3. Louis V the Brandenburger (July 1316 – 17/18 September 1361), duke of Upper Bavaria, margrave of Brandenburg, count of Tyrol 4. Anna (c. July 1317 – 29 January 1319, Kastl) 5. Agnes (c. 1318 – died shortly after). 6. Stephen II (autumn 1319 – 19 May 1375), duke of Lower Bavaria In 1324 he mar­ried his sec­ond wife, Mar­garet II, Count­ess of Hain­aut and Hol­land(1308-1356).Their chil­dren were: 1. Margaret (1325 – 1374), married: 1.1. in 1351 in Ofen Stephen, Duke of Slavonia (d. 1354), son of the King Charles I of Hungary; 1.2. 1357/58 Gerlach von Hohenlohe. 2. Anna (c. 1326 – 3 June 1361, Fontenelles) married John I of Lower Bavaria(d. 1340). 3. Louis VI the Roman(7 May 1328 – 17 May 1365), duke of...

    Cox, Eugene L. (1967). The Green Count of Savoy. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. LCCN 67-11030.

    Charter given by Louis to the Hospital of the Holy Spirit in Nuremberg taken from the collections of the LBA Marburg

  3. Holy Roman Emperor - Simple English Wikipedia, the free ...

    simple.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Holy_Roman_Emperor

    Holy Roman Emperor was the title that was given to the ruler of a loose group of places in mostly Central Europe called the Holy Roman Empire.The title of "emperor" was passed from the Romans to the Frankish kingdom (for which "France" is named) when, on 25 December 800, Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne, king of the Franks, emperor of the Holy Roman Empire.

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  5. Louis the Blind - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_the_Blind

    Louis the Blind (c. 880 – 5 June 928) was the king of Provence from 11 January 887, King of Italy from 12 October 900, and briefly Holy Roman Emperor, as Louis III, between 901 and 905. He was the son of Boso, the usurper king of Provence, and Ermengard, a daughter of the Emperor Louis II.

  6. Category:Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor - Wikimedia Commons

    commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Louis_IV...

    Apr 07, 2020 · Louis IV de Bavière empereur germanique.jpg 518 × 1,000; 316 KB Louis IV de Bavière palais des papes.jpg 1,200 × 1,600; 615 KB Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor.jpg 903 × 1,231; 1.14 MB

    • Germany
    • 11 October 1347, Puchnatural causes, stroke
    • 1 April 1282, 1286 (statement with Gregorian date earlier than 1584), Munich
    • Frauenkirche
  7. Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor | Religion-wiki | Fandom

    religion.wikia.org/wiki/Louis_IV,_Holy_Roman_Emperor
    • Early Reign as Duke of Upper Bavaria
    • Election as German King and Conflict with Habsburg
    • Coronation as Holy Roman Emperor and Conflict with The Pope
    • Imperial Privileges
    • Dynastic Policy
    • Conflict with Luxemburg
    • Family and Children
    • External Links

    Though Louis was partly educated in Vienna and became co-regent of his brother Rudolf I in Upper Bavaria in 1301 with the support of his Habsburg mother Matilda and her brother King Albert I, he quarrelled with the Habsburgs from 1307 over possessions in Lower Bavaria. A civil war against his brother Rudolf due to new disputes on the partition of their lands was ended in 1313, when peace was made at Munich. In the same year Louis defeated his Habsburg cousin Frederick the Handsome. Originally, he was a friend of Frederick, with whom he had been raised. However, armed conflict arose when the guardianship over the young Dukes of Lower Bavaria (Henry XIV, Otto IV and Henry XV) was entrusted to Frederick. On 9 November 1313, Frederick was beaten by Louis in the Battle of Gamelsdorf and had to renounce the tutelage.

    After the death of Holy Roman Emperor Henry VII, the Luxemburg party among the prince electors set aside Henry's son, the Bohemian king John of Luxemburg, because of his youth and chose Louis as rival king to Frederick the Fair, a cousin of Louis. Louis was elected in October 1314 upon the instigation of Peter of Aspelt, the Prince-elector and Archbishopof Mainz, with five of the seven votes, to wit Archbishop-Elector Baldwin of Trier, the legitimate King-Elector John of Bohemia, Duke John II of Saxe-Lauenburg, rivallingly claiming the Saxon prince-electoral power, Peter of Aspelt, and Prince-Elector Waldemar of Brandenburg. Frederick the Fair received in the same election four of the seven votes, with the deposed King-Elector Henry of Bohemia, illegitimately assuming electoral power, Archbishop-Elector Henry II of Cologne, Louis's brother Prince-Elector Rudolph I of the Electorate of the Palatinate, and Duke Rudolph I of Saxe-Wittenberg, rivallingly claiming the Saxon prince-electo...

    After the reconciliation with Habsburg in 1326, Louis marched to Italy and was crowned King of Italy in Milan in 1327. Already in 1323 Louis had sent an army to Italy to protect Milan against the Kingdom of Naples which was together with France the strongest ally of the papacy. But now the Lord of Milan Galeazzo I Visconti was disposed since he was suspected of conspiring with the pope. In January 1328 Louis entered Rome and had himself crowned emperor by the aged senator Sciarra Colonna, called captain of the Roman people. Three months later Louis published a decree declaring "Jacque de Cahors" (Pope John XXII) deposed on grounds of heresy. He then installed a Spiritual Franciscan, Pietro Rainalducci as Antipope Nicholas V, who was deposed after Louis had left Rome in early 1329. In fulfilment of an oath, on his return from Italy Louis founded Ettal Abbeyon28 April 1330. Philosophers such as Michael of Cesena, Marsilius of Padua and William of Ockhamwho advocated a form of church/s...

    Louis IV was a protector of the Teutonic Knights. In 1337 he allegedly bestowed upon the Teutonic Order a privilege to conquer Lithuania and Russia, although the Order had only petitioned for three small territories.Later he forbade the Order to stand trial before foreign courts in their territorial conflicts with foreign rulers. Louis concentrated his energies also on the economic development of the cities of the empire, so his name can be found in many city chronicles for the privileges he granted. In 1330 the emperor permitted the Frankfurt Trade Fair and Lübeck as the most powerful member of the Hanseatic League received in 1340 as first city of the empire the coinage prerogative for golden gulden.

    In 1323 Louis gave Brandenburg as a fiefdom to his eldest son Louis V. With the Treaty of Pavia the emperor returned the Palatinate to his nephews Rudolf and Rupert in 1329. The duchy of Carinthia was released as an imperial fief on 2 May 1335 in Linz to his Habsburg relatives Albert II, Duke of Austriaand Otto, Duke of Austria. With the death of duke John I in 1340 Louis inherited Lower Bavaria and then reunited the duchy of Bavaria. John's mother, a member of the Luxemburg dynasty, had to return to Bohemia. In 1342 Louis also acquired Tyrol for the Wittelsbach by voiding the first marriage of Margarete Maultasch with John Henry of Bohemia and marrying her to his own son Louis V, thus alienating the house of Luxemburg even more. In 1345 the emperor further antagonized the lay princes by conferring Hainaut, Holland, Zeeland and Friesland upon his wife Margaret of Holland. The hereditary titles of Magaret's sisters, one of them was the queen of England, were ignored. Due to the dange...

    The acquisition of these territories and his restless foreign policy had earned Louis many enemies among the German princes. In the summer of 1346 the Luxemburg Charles IV was elected rival king, with the support of Pope Clement VI. Louis himself obtained much support from the Imperial Free Cities and the knighthood and successfully resisted Charles, who was widely regarded as a papal puppet ("rex clericorum" as William of Ockhamcalled him). Also the Habsburg dukes stayed loyal to Louis. In the Battle of Crécy. Charles' father John of Luxemburg was killed; Charles himself also took part in the battle but escaped. Louis' sudden death in October 1347 avoided a longer civil war. The sons of Louis supported Günther von Schwarzburg as new rival king to Charles but finally joined the Luxemburg party after Günther's early death in 1349 and divided the Wittelsbach possessions among each other again. In continuance of the conflict of the House of Wittelsbach with the House of Luxemburg, the...

    In 1308 he married firstly to Beatrix of Świdnica. Their children were: 1. Mathilde (aft. 21 June 1313 – 2 July 1346, Meißen), married at Nürnberg 1 July 1329 Friedrich II, Markgraf of Meißen (d. 1349) 2. a child (b. September 1314) 3. Anna (c. 1316 – 29 January 1319, Kastl) 4. Louis V the Brandenburger (1316–1361), duke of Upper Bavaria, margrave of Brandenburg, count of Tyrol 5. Agnes (b. c. 1318) 6. Stephen II (1319–1375), duke of Lower Bavaria In 1324 he married secondly to Margaret of Holland, countess of Hainaut and Holland. Their children were: 1. Margarete (1325–1374), married: 1.1. in 1351 in Ofen Stephen, Duke of Slavonia (d. 1354); 1.2. 1357/58 Gerlach von Hohenlohe. 2. Anna (c. 1326 – 3 June 1361, Fontenelles) married John I of Lower Bavaria (d. 1340) 3. Louis VI the Roman (1328–1365), duke of Upper Bavaria, elector of Brandenburg. 4. Elisabeth (1329 – 2 August 1402, Stuttgart), married: 4.1. Cangrande II della Scala, Lord of Verona (d. 1359) in Verona on 22 November 135...

    Charter given by Louis to the Hospital of the Holy Spirit in Nurembergtaken from the collections of the LBA Marburg

  8. Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor

    enacademic.com/dic.nsf/enwiki/24317

    Louis IV (1 April 1282 – 11 October 1347), called the Bavarian, of the house of Wittelsbach, was the Duke of Bavaria from 1294/1301 together with his brother Rudolf I, Count Palatine of the Rhine until 1329, King of Germany from 1314, and Holy Roman Emperor from 1328.

  9. Emperor Louis IV of the Holy Roman Empire : Family tree by ...

    gw.geneanet.org/comrade28?lang=en&n=empire&oc=0&...

    Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor.Louis IV of Bavaria of the House of Wittelsbach (born 1282) was duke of Bavaria from 1294/1301 together with his brother Rudolf I, also count of the Palatinate until 1329 and, German king since 1314 and crowned as Holy Roman Emperor in 1328.

  10. Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_IV,_Holy_Roman_Emperor

    On 11 July 1346, the prince-electors chose him as King of the Romans (rex Romanorum) in opposition to Emperor Louis IV. Charles was crowned on 26 November 1346 in Bonn. After his opponent died, he was re-elected in 1349 and crowned King of the Romans. In 1355, he was crowned King of Italy and Holy Roman Emperor.

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