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    Luxembourg ( / ˈlʌksəmbɜːrɡ / ( listen) LUK-səm-burg; [9] Luxembourgish: Lëtzebuerg [ˈlətsəbuəɕ] ( listen); French: Luxembourg; German: Luxemburg ), officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, [c] is a small landlocked country in Western Europe. It borders Belgium to the west and north, Germany to the east, and France to the south.

    • Timeline
    • Government
    • Districts, Cantons, and Communes
    • Related Pages
    • References
    963 - Luxembourg was founded. Sigefroid, Count of Ardennes, came to own the ruins of an old Roman fort called "Castellum Lucilinburhuc" ("Little Castle") from the monks of the Abbey of St. Maximin...
    1354 - The emperor Charles IV made Luxembourg a duchy.
    1437 - There were no people in the ruling family alive. The castle was given to the Habsburgs.
    1443 - Luxembourg was captured by Philip of Burgundy.

    Luxembourg is a parliamentary democracy lead by a constitutional monarch. Under the constitution of 1868, executive power is in the hands of the Governor and the cabinet, which consists of several other ministers.

    Luxembourg is divided into 3 districts, which are further divided into 12 cantons and then 102 communes. Twelve of the communes have city status, of which the city of Luxembourgis the largest.

    ↑ "Population: 511 840 habitants au 1er janvier 2011", Le Portail des statistiques: Grand-Duché de Luxembourg, 3 May 2011. (in French)Retrieved 4 May 2011.
    ↑ 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 "Luxembourg". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 19 April 2012.
    ↑ "Human Development Report 2011" (PDF). United Nations. 2011. Retrieved 5 November 2011.
    ↑ Abnett, Kate (29 February 2020). "Luxembourg becomes first country to make public transport free". Reuters. Luxembourg. Retrieved 10 April 2020.
  2. Le Luxembourg, en forme longue Grand-Duché de Luxembourg 4, Note 3, Note 4 ou grand-duché de Luxembourg Note 5 (en luxembourgeois : Lëtzebuerg Écouter et Groussherzogtum Lëtzebuerg, en allemand : Luxemburg et Großherzogtum Luxemburg ), est un pays d' Europe de l'Ouest sans accès à la mer Note 6. Il est bordé par la Belgique à l'ouest ...

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    • Physical Geography
    • Environment
    • Geographical Statistics


    Despite its small size, Luxembourg has a varied topography, with two main features to its landscape. The northern section of the country is formed by part of the plateau of the Ardennes, where the mountain heights range from 450 to 560 metres (1,500 to 1,800 feet). The rest of the country is made up of undulating countryside with broad valleys. The capital, Luxembourg City, is located in the southern part of the country.

    Green heart of Europe

    Because the soil is so difficult to cultivate, most of the land is used for cattle pasture. The Ardennes region also includes the Upper Sûre National Park, an important conservation area and a hiker's retreat. South of the Sûre River, the country is known as the Gutland. The region covers slightly over two-thirds of the country. The terrain gently rises and falls with an average height of 200 m (700 ft). Agriculture is the main activity as term Gutland arises from the fertile soil and warm, d...

    Rivers and lakes

    Luxembourg has a number of minor rivers, such as the Eisch, the Alzette, and the Pétrusse, but the main river is the Moselle with its tributaries-the Sûre and the Our. Together, their courses serve as a natural boundary between Luxembourg and Germany. Along their banks, many of the country's medieval castles can be found. The Moselle actually rises in northeast France and flows north through Luxembourg for 31 km (19 mi) to join the mighty Rhine at Koblenz, Germany. The Moselle is 544 km (544...


    Luxembourg is part of the West European Continentalclimatic region, and enjoys a temperate climate without extremes. Winters are mild, summers fairly cool, and rainfall is high. Seasonal weather is somewhat different between the northern and southern regions. In the north there is considerable influence from the Atlantic systems, in which the passage of frequent pressure depressions gives rise to unstable weather conditions. This results in overcast skies and considerable drizzle in the winte...


    Luxembourg's flora is characterized by the country's location at the border between the Atlantic-European and Central-European climate zones. In the north, beech and oaktrees are plentiful. The oak trees can grow up to 30–45 m (98–148 ft), with a diameter of 1.2–2.4 m (3.9–7.9 ft). They supply large quantities of excellent hardwood timber because of their strength. Along the riverbanks, species like the black alder and willowscan be found. Alder wood is pale yellow to reddish brown, fine-text...

    International agreements

    Party to:Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands Signed, but not ratified:Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea

    Geographic coordinates:49°45′N 6°10′E / 49.750°N 6.167°E / 49.750; 6.167 Area: total:2 586 km2 land:2 586 km2 water:0 km2 Natural resources:iron ore (no longer exploited), arable land Land use: arable land:23.9% permanent crops:0.56% other:75.52% (2011) Irrigated land:10 km2(including Belgium) (1993 est.) Total renewable water resources:3.1 km3

  4. The history of Luxembourg consists of the history of the country of Luxembourg and its geographical area. Although its recorded history can be traced back to Roman times, the history of Luxembourg proper is considered to begin in 963. Over the following five centuries, the powerful House of Luxembourg emerged, but its extinction put an end to ...

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