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Lyme disease, also known as Lyme borreliosis, is an infectious disease caused by the Borrelia bacterium which is spread by ticks. The most common sign of infection is an expanding red rash , known as erythema migrans , that appears at the site of the tick bite about a week after it occurred. 
Lyme disease or borreliosis, is an infectious disease. It is caused by bacteria of the genus Borrelia . The disease is carried by ticks which are parasitic on mammals such as mice and deer .
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- Species and strains
- Genomic characteristics
- Structure and growth
Lyme disease, or borreliosis, is caused by spirochetal bacteria from the genus Borrelia, which has 52 known species. Three main species are the main causative agents of the disease in humans, while a number of others have been implicated as possibly pathogenic. Borrelia species in the species complex known to cause Lyme disease are collectively called Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato not to be confused with the single species in that complex Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto which is responsible
Until recently, only three genospecies were thought to cause Lyme disease: B. burgdorferi s.s.; B. afzelii; and B. garinii. Thirteen distinct genomic classifications of Lyme disease bacteria have been identified worldwide. These include but are not limited to B. burgdorferi s.s., B. afzelii, B. garinii, B. valaisana, B. lusitaniae, B. andersoni, 25015, DN127, CA55, 25015, HK501, B. miyamotoi, and B. japonica. Many of these genomic groups are country or continent specific. For example, without mi
Lyme disease is most endemic in Northern Hemisphere temperate regions, but sporadic cases have been described in other areas of the world. The number of reported cases of the borreliosis have been increasing, as are endemic regions in North America. Of cases reported to the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the rate of Lyme disease infection is 7.9 cases for every 100,000 persons. In the 10 states where Lyme disease is most common, the average was 31.6 cases per 100,000 p
The lifecycle of B. burgdorferi is complex, requiring ticks, and species that are competent reservoirs, often small rodents. Mice are the primary reservoir for the bacteria. Hard ticks have a variety of life histories with respect to optimizing their chance of contact with an appropriate host to ensure survival. The life stages of soft ticks are not readily distinguishable. The first stage to hatch from the egg, a six-legged larva, takes a blood meal from a host, and molts to the first nymphal s
The genome of B. burgdorferi was the third microbial genome ever to be sequenced, following the sequencing of both H. influenzae and M. genitalium in 1995, and its chromosome contains 910,725 base pairs and 853 genes. One of the most striking features of B. burgdorferi as compared with other bacteria is its unusual genome, which is far more complex than that of its spirochetal cousin Treponema pallidum, the agent of syphilis. In addition to a linear chromosome, the genome of B. burgdorferi strai
B. burgdorferi is a highly specialized, motile, two-membrane, flat-waved spirochete, ranging from about 9 to 32 μm in length. Because of its double-membrane envelope, it is often mistakenly described as Gram negative, though it stains weakly in Gram stain. The bacterial membranes in at least the B31, NL303 and N40 strains of B. burgdorferi do not contain lipopolysaccharide, which is extremely atypical for Gram negative bacteria; instead, the membranes contain glycolipids. However, the membranes
Borrelia burgdorferi is a bacterial species of the spirochete class of the genus Borrelia. B. burgdorferi exists in North America and Europe and until 2016 was the only known cause of Lyme disease in North America (Borrelia mayonii, found in the midwestern US, is also known to cause the disease).
Nov 05, 2020 · Lyme disease is the most common vector-borne disease in the United States. Lyme disease is caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi and rarely, Borrelia mayonii. It is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected blacklegged ticks. Typical symptoms include fever, headache, fatigue, and a characteristic skin rash called erythema migrans. If left untreated, infection can spread to joints, the heart, and the nervous system.
- Risk Factors
Lyme disease is caused by four main species of bacteria. Borrelia burgdorferi and Borrelia mayonii cause Lyme disease in the United States, while Borrelia afzelii and Borrelia garinii are the leading causes in Europe and Asia. The most common tick-borne illness in these regions, Lyme disease is transmitted by the bite of an infected black-legged tick, commonly known as a deer tick.You're more likely to get Lyme disease if you live or spend time in grassy and heavily wooded areas where ticks c...
The signs and symptoms of Lyme disease vary. They usually appear in stages, but the stages can overlap.
In the United States, Lyme disease is caused by the bacteria Borrelia burgdorferi and Borrelia mayonii, carried primarily by black-legged or deer ticks. Young brown ticks often are no bigger than a poppy seed, which can make them nearly impossible to spot.To contract Lyme disease, an infected deer tick must bite you. The bacteria enter your skin through the bite and eventually make their way into your bloodstream.In most cases, to transmit Lyme disease, a deer tick must be attached for 36 to...
Where you live or vacation can affect your chances of getting Lyme disease. So can your profession and the outdoor activities you enjoy. The most common risk factors for Lyme disease include: 1. Spending time in wooded or grassy areas. In the United States, deer ticks are found mostly in the heavily wooded areas of the Northeast and Midwest. Children who spend a lot of time outdoors in these regions are especially at risk. Adults with outdoor occupations also are at increased risk. 2. Having...
Untreated Lyme disease can cause: 1. Chronic joint inflammation (Lyme arthritis), particularly of the knee 2. Neurological symptoms, such as facial palsy and neuropathy 3. Cognitive defects, such as impaired memory 4. Heart rhythm irregularities
The best way to prevent Lyme disease is to avoid areas where deer ticks live, especially wooded, bushy areas with long grass. You can decrease your risk of getting Lyme disease with some simple precautions: 1. Cover up. When in wooded or grassy areas, wear shoes, long pants tucked into your socks, a long-sleeved shirt, a hat and gloves. Try to stick to trails and avoid walking through low bushes and long grass. Keep your dog on a leash. 2. Use insect repellents. Apply insect repellent with a...
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