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  1. Friedrich Melchior, Baron von Grimm - Wikipedia

    Mozart was recruited by the director of the "Concert Spirituel", Joseph Legros, to write some choruses, K. 297a, which were played without giving credit to Mozart. Then Mozart wrote a Sinfonia concertante in E flat major K. 297b, for a group of four wind players from Mannheim, which he sold to Legros without keeping a copy.

  2. Andrés Segovia - Wikipediaès_Segovia

    The main-belt asteroid 3822 Segovia was named in his memory in 1989. A competition co-sponsored by the European Guitar Teachers Association is named after Segovia. Awards. Segovia was awarded many prizes and honours, including doctorates honoris causa, from ten universities.

    • Andrés Segovia Torres
    • 2 June 1987 (aged 94), Madrid, Spain
  3. Nolwenn Leroy - Wikipedia

    To describe the phenomenon they coined the term the Nolwenn Effect, saying: "the music of Nolwenn Leroy appears to have a different effect on brain-based modulation of gait and stance than other music tested to date". Mozart and Dutch and French singers were tested; only Mozart and Leroy's music were specified.

    • Nolwenn Le Magueresse
    • 28 September 1982 (age 37), Saint-Renan, France
    • Singer-songwriter, musician, voice actress
    • Pop, World, Celtic, Folk
  4. Beethoven: Biography | Music Appreciation
    • Biography
    • Character
    • Overview
    • in Popular Culture
    • Legacy
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    Background and Early Life

    Beethoven was the grandson of Lodewijk van Beethoven (1712–73), a musician from Mechelen in the Southern Netherlands (now part of Belgium) who at the age of twenty moved to Bonn. Lodewijk (Ludwig is the German cognate of Dutch Lodewijk) was employed as a bass singer at the court of the Elector of Cologne, eventually rising to become Kapellmeister (music director). Lodewijk had one son, Johann (1740–1792), who worked as a tenor in the same musical establishment and gave lessons on piano and vi...

    Establishing His Career in Vienna

    From 1790 to 1792, Beethoven composed a significant number of works (none were published at the time, and most are now listed as works without opus) that demonstrated his growing range and maturity. Musicologists identified a theme similar to those of his third symphony in a set of variations written in 1791. Beethoven was probably first introduced to Joseph Haydn in late 1790, when the latter was traveling to London and stopped in Bonn around Christmas time.A year and a half later they met i...

    Musical Maturity

    Beethoven composed his first six string quartets (Op. 18) between 1798 and 1800 (commissioned by, and dedicated to, Prince Lobkowitz). They were published in 1801. With premieres of his First and Second Symphonies in 1800 and 1803, Beethoven became regarded as one of the most important of a generation of young composers following Haydn and Mozart. He also continued to write in other forms, turning out widely known piano sonatas like the “Pathétique” sonata (Op. 13), which Cooper describes as...

    Beethoven’s personal life was troubled by his encroaching deafness and irritability brought on by chronic abdominal pain (beginning in his twenties) which led him to contemplate suicide (documented in his Heiligenstadt Testament). Beethoven was often irascible. It has been suggested he suffered from bipolar disorder.Nevertheless, he had a close and devoted circle of friends all his life, thought to have been attracted by his strength of personality. Toward the end of his life, Beethoven’s friends competed in their efforts to help him cope with his incapacities. Sources show Beethoven’s disdain for authority, and for social rank. He stopped performing at the piano if the audience chatted amongst themselves, or afforded him less than their full attention. At soirées, he refused to perform if suddenly called upon to do so. Eventually, after many confrontations, the Archduke Rudolph decreed that the usual rules of court etiquette did not apply to Beethoven. Beethoven was attracted to th...

    Beethoven composed in several musical genres and for a variety of instrument combinations. His works for symphony orchestra include nine symphonies (the Ninth Symphony includes a chorus), and about a dozen pieces of “occasional” music. He wrote seven concerti for one or more soloists and orchestra, as well as four shorter works that include soloists accompanied by orchestra. His only opera is Fidelio; other vocal works with orchestral accompaniment include two masses and a number of shorter works. His large body of compositions for piano includes 32 piano sonatas and numerous shorter pieces, including arrangements of some of his other works. Works with piano accompaniment include 10 violin sonatas, 5 cello sonatas, and a sonata for French horn, as well as numerous lieder. Beethoven also wrote a significant quantity of chamber music. In addition to 16 string quartets, he wrote five works for string quintet, seven for piano trio, five for string trio, and more than a dozen works for v...


    Un grand amour de Beethovenwas directed in 1937 by Abel Gance. It stars Harry Baur. Eroica is a 1949 Austrian film depicting the life and works of Beethoven (Ewald Balser). It was entered into the 1949 Cannes Film Festival.The film is directed by Walter Kolm-Veltée, produced by Guido Bagier with Walter Kolm-Veltée and written by Walter Kolm-Veltée with Franz Tassié. Ludwig van Beethovenis a 1954 documentary directed by Max Jaap in the GDR that presents the life of Beethoven. Original document...

    The Beethoven Monument, Bonn, was unveiled in August 1845, in honour of his 75th anniversary. It was the first statue of a composer created in Germany, and the music festival that accompanied the unveiling was the impetus for the very hasty construction of the original Beethovenhalle in Bonn (it was designed and built within less than a month, on the urging of Franz Liszt). A statue to Mozart had been unveiled in Salzburg, Austria in 1842. Vienna did not honour Beethoven with a statue until 1880. His is the only name inscribed on one of the plaques that trim Symphony Hall, Boston; the others were left empty because it was felt that only Beethovens’ popularity would endure. There is a museum, the Beethoven House, the place of his birth, in central Bonn. The same city has hosted a musical festival, the Beethovenfest (de), since 1845. The festival was initially irregular but has been organized annually since 2007. The third largest crater on Mercury is named in his honor, as is the mai...

    Cited sources

    1. Brandenburg, Sieghard (ed.): Ludwig van Beethoven: Briefwechsel. Gesamtausgabe. 8 vols. Munich: Henle 1996. 2. Clive, Peter (2001). Beethoven and His World: A Biographical Dictionary. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-816672-9. 3. Cooper, Barry (2008). Beethoven. Oxford University Press US. ISBN 978-0-19-531331-4. 4. Cross, Milton; Ewen, David (1953). The Milton Cross New Encyclopedia of the Great Composers and Their Music. Garden City, New Jersey: Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-03635-3....

    Media related to Ludwig van Beethoven at Wikimedia Commons
    The Ira F. Brilliant Center for Beethoven Studies, The Beethoven Gateway(San José State University)
  5. Lacrimosa — Lacrimosa, also seen as the philologically incorrect Lacrymosa, may refer to: General * The Latin word lacrimosa means weeping . * Lacrimosa (Requiem), part of the Dies Irae sequence in the Requiem mass * 208 Lacrimosa, a main belt asteroid Music … Wikipedia

  6. J. S. Bach: His Life and Legacy | Music Appreciation 1

    A large crater in the Bach quadrangle on Mercury is named in Bach’s honor as are the main-belt asteroids 1814 Bach and 1482 Sebastiana. Bach’s music features three times—more than that of any other composer—on the Voyager Golden Record, a gramophone record containing a broad sample of the images, common sounds, languages, and music of ...

  7. Claude Debussy : definition of Claude Debussy and synonyms of ... Debussy/en-en

    Claude-Achille Debussy (French pronunciation: [klod aʃil dəbysi]) [1] (22 August 1862 – 25 March 1918) was a French composer. Along with Maurice Ravel, he was one of the most prominent figures working within the field of impressionist music, though he himself intensely disliked the term when applied to his compositions. [2]

  8. Claude Debussy: Biography - Classic Cat

    Claude-Achille Debussy (French pronunciation: [klod aʃil dəbysi]) [1] [2] (August 22, 1862 – March 25, 1918) was a French composer.Along with Maurice Ravel, he was one of the most prominent figures working within the field of impressionist music, though he himself intensely disliked the term when applied to his compositions. [3]

  9. Bach: Biography | Music Appreciation
    • Legacy
    • Works
    • Musical Style
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    After his death, Bach’s reputation as a composer at first declined; his work was regarded as old-fashioned compared to the emerging galant style, a movement which can be seen as the precursor to the classical style of the late eighteenth century.Initially he was remembered more as a player and teacher. During the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century, Bach was recognised by several prominent composers for his keyboard work. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Ludwig van Beethoven, Frédéric Chopin, Robert Schumann, and Felix Mendelssohn were among his admirers; they began writing in a more contrapuntal style after being exposed to Bach’s music. Beethoven described him as “Urvater der Harmonie“, the “original father of harmony”. Bach’s reputation among the wider public was enhanced in part by Johann Nikolaus Forkel’s 1802 biography of the composer. Felix Mendelssohn significantly contributed to the revival of Bach’s reputation with his 1829 Berlin performance of the St Matthew Passion.In...

    Organ works

    Bach was best known during his lifetime as an organist, organ consultant, and composer of organ works in both the traditional German free genres—such as preludes, fantasias, and toccatas—and stricter forms, such as chorale preludes and fugues.At a young age, he established a reputation for his great creativity and ability to integrate foreign styles into his organ works. A decidedly North German influence was exerted by Georg Böhm, with whom Bach came into contact in Lüneburg, and Dieterich B...

    Other keyboard works

    Bach wrote many works for harpsichord, some of which may have been played on the clavichord. Many of his keyboard works are anthologies that encompass whole theoretical systems in an encyclopaedic fashion. 1. The Well-Tempered Clavier, Books 1 and 2 (BWV 846–893). Each book consists of a prelude and fugue in each of the 24 major and minor keys in chromatic order from C major to B minor (thus, the whole collection is often referred to as “the 48”). “Well-tempered” in the title refers to the te...

    Orchestral and chamber music

    Bach wrote for single instruments, duets, and small ensembles. Many of his solo works, such as his six sonatas and partitas for violin (BWV 1001–1006), six cello suites(BWV 1007–1012), and partita for solo flute (BWV 1013), are widely considered among the most profound works in the repertoire. Bach composed a suite and several other works for solo lute. He wrote trio sonatas; solo sonatas (accompanied by continuo) for the flute and for the viola da gamba; and a large number of canons and rice...

    Bach’s musical style arose from his skill in contrapuntal invention and motivic control, his flair for improvisation, his exposure to North and South German, Italian and French music, and his devotion to the Lutheran liturgy. His access to musicians, scores and instruments as a child and a young man and his emerging talent for writing tightly woven music of powerful sonority, allowed him to develop an eclectic, energetic musical style in which foreign influences were combined with an intensified version of the pre-existing German musical language. From the period 1713–14 onward he learned much from the style of the Italians. During the Baroque period, many composers only wrote the framework, and performers embellished this framework with ornaments and other elaboration. This practice varied considerably between the schools of European music; Bach notated most or all of the details of his melodic lines, leaving little for performers to interpolate. This accounted for his control over...

    Baron, Carol K. (2006). Bach’s Changing World: Voices in the Community. Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press. ISBN 1-58046-190-5.
    Dörffel, Alfred (1882). Thematisches Verzeichnis der Instrumentalwerke von Joh. Seb. Bach, auf Grund der Gesammtausgabe von C.F. Peter. Leipzig: C.F. Peters.(German) N.B.: First published in 1867;...
    Eidam, Klaus (2001). The True Life of J.S. Bach. New York: Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-01861-0.
    Gardiner, John Eliot (2013). Music in the Castle of Heaven: A Portrait of Johann Sebastian Bach. London: Allen Lane. ISBN 978-0-7139-9662-3.
  10. Debussy: Biography | Music Appreciation
    • Early Life
    • Personal Life
    • Death
    • Music
    • Eponyms
    • Recordings
    • Further Reading
    • External Links

    Claude Debussy was born on 22 August 1862 in Saint-Germain-en-Laye, France, the eldest of five children. His father, Manuel-Achille Debussy, owned a china shop there; his mother, Victorine Manoury Debussy, was a seamstress. The family moved to Paris in 1867, but in 1870 Debussy’s pregnant mother fled with Claude to his paternal aunt’s home in Cannes to escape the Franco-Prussian War. Debussy began piano lessons there at the age of seven with an Italian violinist in his early 40s named Cerutti; his aunt paid for his lessons. In 1871 he drew the attention of Marie Mauté de Fleurville, who claimed to have been a pupil of Frédéric Chopin. Debussy always believed her, although there is no independent evidence to support her claim. His talents soon became evident, and in 1872, at age ten, Debussy entered the Paris Conservatoire, where he spent the next 11 years. During his time there he studied composition with Ernest Guiraud, music history/theory with Louis-Albert Bourgault-Ducoudray, ha...

    Debussy’s private life was often turbulent. At the age of 18 he began an eight-year affair with Marie-Blanche Vasnier, wife of a Parisian civil servant. The relationship eventually faltered following his winning of the Prix de Rome in 1884 and obligatory residence in Rome. On his permanent return to Paris and his parents’ home on the avenue de Berlin (now rue de Liège) he began a tempestuous relationship with Gabrielle (‘Gaby’) Dupont, a tailor’s daughter from Lisieux, soon cohabiting with her on the rue de Londres, and later the rue Gustave Doré. During this time he also had an affair with the singer Thérèse Roger, to whom he was briefly engaged. Such cavalier behaviour was widely condemned, and precipitated the end of his long friendship with Ernest Chausson. He ultimately left Dupont for her friend Rosalie (‘Lilly’) Texier, a fashion model whom he married in 1899, after threatening suicide if she refused him. However, although Texier was affectionate, practical, straightforward,...

    Debussy died of rectal cancer at his Paris home on 25 March 1918, at the age of 55. He had been diagnosed with the cancer in 1909after experiencing haemorrhaging, and in December 1915 underwent one of the earliest colostomy operations ever performed. The operation achieved only a temporary respite, and occasioned him considerable frustration (he was to liken dressing in the morning to “all the labours of Hercules in one”). His death occurred in the midst of the aerial and artillery bombardment of Paris during the German Spring Offensive of World War I. The funeral procession made its way through deserted streets to Père Lachaise Cemetery as the German guns bombarded the city. The military situation in France was critical, and did not permit the honour of a public funeral with ceremonious graveside orations. Debussy’s body was reinterred the following year in the small Passy Cemetery sequestered behind the Trocadéro, fulfilling his wish to rest ‘among the trees and the birds’; his wi...


    Rudolph Reti points out these features of Debussy’s music, which “established a new concept of tonality in European music”: 1. Glittering passages and webs of figurations which distract from occasional absence of tonality; 2. Frequent use of parallel chords which are “in essence not harmonies at all, but rather ‘chordal melodies’, enriched unisons”; some writers describe these as non-functional harmonies; 3. Bitonality, or at least bitonal chords; 4. Use of the whole-tone and pentatonic scale...

    List of works

    1. List of compositions by Claude Debussy by genre 2. List of compositions by Claude Debussy by Lesure numbers

    Early works

    Beginning in the 1890s, Debussy developed his own musical language largely independent of Wagner’s style, collared in part from the dreamy, sometimes morbid romanticism of the Symbolist movement. Debussy became a frequent participant at Stéphane Mallarmé’s Symbolist gatherings, where Wagnerism dominated the discussion. In contrast to the enormous works of Wagner and other late-romantic composers, however, around this time Debussy chose to write in smaller, more accessible forms. The Deux arab...

    Debussy’s name has posthumously been given to a number of discoveries. These include: 1. Debussy Heights, a minor mountain range on Alexander Island, Antarctica, including Ravel Peak, which was discovered in 1960 2. Debussy, an impact crater on Mercury which was discovered in 1969 3. Debussy, an Irish thoroughbred race horse 4. 4492 Debussy, a main belt asteroid that was discovered in 1988

    Debussy participated in a handful of recordings, made in 1904, with soprano Mary Garden. He also made some piano rolls for Welte Mignon in 1913.

    Fulcher, Jane (ed.) (2001). Debussy and His World (The Bard Music Festival). Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-09042-4.
    Lücke, Hendrik (2005): Mallarmé, Debussy: Eine vergleichende Studie zur Kunstanschauung am Beispiel von „L’Après-midi d’un Faune“. Schriftenreihe Studien zur Musikwissenschaft 4. Hamburg: Dr. Kovac...
    Nichols, R. (1998) The Life of Debussy (Cambridge, 1998).[full citation needed]
    Parks, R. S. (1989). The Music of Claude Debussy (New Haven).[full citation needed]
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