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  1. Timeline of Mainz - Wikipedia › wiki › Timeline_of_Mainz
    • Prior to 19th Century
    • 19th Century
    • 20th Century
    • 21st Century
    • See Also
    • External Links
    13 BCE - Roman fort Mogontiacum built.
    314 CE - Roman Catholic Diocese of Mainzestablished (approximate date).
    406 - Battle of Mainz (406).
    790s - Benedictine St. Alban's Abbeyactive (approximate date).
    1803 - "Hall of Antiques" exhibited.
    1805 - Stadtbibliothek Mainz[de](library) established.
    1817 - Mainzer Turnverein von 1817[de](sport club) formed.
    1901 - Gutenberg Museumopens.
    1904 - Kaiserbrücke(railway bridge) built.
    1905 - 1. FSV Mainz 05football club formed.
    1907 - Gustav Stresemann Business Schoolfounded.
    2011 - Coface Arenaopens.
    2012 - Michael Eblingbecomes mayor.
    2013 - Population: 204,268.
    Links to fulltext city directories for Mainzvia Wikisource
    Europeana. Items related to Mainz, various dates.
    Digital Public Library of America. Items related to Mainz, various dates
  2. Mainz Psalter - Wikipedia › wiki › Mainz_Psalter

    Mainz Psalter. The Mainz Psalter was the second major book printed with movable type in the West; the first was the Gutenberg Bible. It is a psalter commissioned by the Mainz archbishop in 1457. The Psalter introduced several innovations: it was the first book to feature a printed date of publication, a printed colophon, two sizes of type ...

  3. Hans Dieter Betz - Wikipedia › wiki › Hans_Dieter_Betz

    Hans Dieter Betz (born 21 May 1931, Lemgo, Germany) is a German/American scholar of the New Testament and Early Christianity at the University of Chicago.He has made influential contributions to research on Paul's Letter to the Galatians, the Sermon on the Mount and the Greco-Roman context of Early Christianity.

    • United States
    • Burkitt Medal for Biblical Studies
  4. Marc Chagall - Wikipedia › wiki › Marc_Chagall
    • Early Life and Education
    • Art Career
    • Art Styles and Techniques
    • Other Types of Art
    • Final Years and Death
    • Gallery
    • Legacy and Influence
    • Theatre
    • Exhibitions and Tributes
    • See Also

    Early life

    Marc Chagall was born Moishe Shagal in a Lithuanian Jewish Hassidic family in Liozna, near the city of Vitebsk (Belarus, then part of the Russian Empire) in 1887.[b] At the time of his birth, Vitebsk's population was about 66,000. Half of the population were Jewish. A picturesque city of churches and synagogues, it was called "Russian Toledo", after the cosmopolitan city of the former Spanish Empire. As the city was built mostly of wood, little of it survived years of occupation and destructi...

    Art education

    In the Russian Empire at that time, Jewish children were not allowed to attend regular schools or universities. Their movement within the city was also restricted. Chagall therefore received his primary education at the local Jewish religious school, where he studied Hebrewand the Bible. At the age of 13, his mother tried to enroll him in a regular high school, and he recalled, "But in that school, they don't take Jews. Without a moment's hesitation, my courageous mother walks up to a profess...

    Artistic inspiration

    Goodman notes that during this period in Imperial Russia, Jews had two basic alternatives for joining the art world: One was to "hide or deny one's Jewish roots". The other alternative—the one that Chagall chose—was "to cherish and publicly express one's Jewish roots" by integrating them into his art. For Chagall, this was also his means of "self-assertion and an expression of principle.":14 Chagall biographer Franz Meyer explains that with the connections between his art and early life "the...

    Russian Empire

    In 1906, he moved to Saint Petersburg which was then the capital of the Russian Empire and the center of the country's artistic life with its famous art schools. Since Jews were not permitted into the city without an internal passport, he managed to get a temporary passport from a friend. He enrolled in a prestigious art school and studied there for two years. By 1907, he had begun painting naturalistic self-portraits and landscapes. Chagall was an active member of the irregular freemasonic l...


    In 1910, Chagall relocated to Paris to develop his artistic style. Art historian and curator James Sweeney notes that when Chagall first arrived in Paris, Cubism was the dominant art form, and French art was still dominated by the "materialistic outlook of the 19th century". But Chagall arrived from Russia with "a ripe color gift, a fresh, unashamed response to sentiment, a feeling for simple poetry and a sense of humor", he adds. These notions were alien to Paris at that time, and as a resul...

    Russia and Soviet Belarus

    Because he missed his fiancée, Bella, who was still in Vitebsk—"He thought about her day and night", writes Baal-Teshuva—and was afraid of losing her, Chagall decided to accept an invitation from a noted art dealer in Berlin to exhibit his work, his intention being to continue on to Belarus, marry Bella, and then return with her to Paris. Chagall took 40 canvases and 160 gouaches, watercolors and drawings to be exhibited. The exhibit, held at Herwarth Walden's Sturm Gallerywas a huge success,...


    According to Cogniat, in all Chagall's work during all stages of his life, it was his colors which attracted and captured the viewer's attention. During his earlier years his range was limited by his emphasis on form and his pictures never gave the impression of painted drawings. He adds, "The colors are a living, integral part of the picture and are never passively flat, or banal like an afterthought. They sculpt and animate the volume of the shapes... they indulge in flights of fancy and in...

    Stained glass windows

    One of Chagall's major contributions to art has been his work with stained glass. This medium allowed him further to express his desire to create intense and fresh colors and had the added benefit of natural light and refraction interacting and constantly changing: everything from the position where the viewer stood to the weather outside would alter the visual effect (though this is not the case with his Hadassah windows). It was not until 1956, when he was nearly 70 years of age, that he de...

    Murals, theatre sets and costumes

    Chagall first worked on stage designs in 1914 while living in Russia, under the inspiration of the theatrical designer and artist Léon Bakst. It was during this period in the Russian theatre that formerly static ideas of stage design were, according to Cogniat, "being swept away in favor of a wholly arbitrary sense of space with different dimensions, perspectives, colors and rhythms.":66These changes appealed to Chagall who had been experimenting with Cubism and wanted a way to enliven his im...


    Chagall also designed tapestries which were woven under the direction of Yvette Cauquil-Prince, who also collaborated with Picasso. These tapestries are much rarer than his paintings, with only 40 of them ever reaching the commercial market. Chagall designed three tapestries for the state hall of the Knessetin Israel, along with 12-floor mosaics and a wall mosaic.

    Author Serena Davies writes that "By the time he died in France in 1985—the last surviving master of European modernism, outliving Joan Miró by two years—he had experienced at first hand the high hopes and crushing disappointments of the Russian revolution, and had witnessed the end of the Pale of Settlement, the near annihilation of European Jewry, and the obliteration of Vitebsk, his home town, where only 118 of a population of 240,000 survived the Second World War." Chagall's final work was a commissioned piece of art for the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago. The maquette painting titled Job had been completed, but Chagall died just before the completion of the tapestry.Yvette Cauquil-Prince was weaving the tapestry under Chagall's supervision and was the last person to work with Chagall. She left Vava and Marc Chagall's home at 4 pm on 28 March after discussing and matching the final colors from the maquette painting for the tapestry. He died that evening. His relationship wi...

    Marc Chagall, 1911, To My Betrothed, gouache, watercolor, metallic paint, charcoal, and ink on paper, mounted on cardboard, 61 × 44.5 cm, Philadelphia Museum of Art
    Marc Chagall, 1911, I and the Village, oil on canvas, 192.1 × 151.4 cm, Museum of Modern Art, New York
    Marc Chagall, 1911, A la Russie, aux ânes et aux autres (To Russia, Asses and Others), oil on canvas, 157 x 122 cm, Musée National d'Art Moderne, Centre Pompidou, Paris
    Marc Chagall, 1911, Trois heures et demie (Le poète), Half-Past Three (The Poet) Halb vier Uhr, oil on canvas, 195.9 × 144.8 cm, The Louise and Walter Arensberg Collection, 1950, Philadelphia Museu...

    Chagall biographer Jackie Wullschlager praises him as a "pioneer of modern art and one of its greatest figurative painters... [who] invented a visual language that recorded the thrill and terror of the twentieth century."She adds: Art historians Ingo Walther and Rainer Metzger refer to Chagall as a "poet, dreamer, and exotic apparition." They add that throughout his long life the "role of outsider and artistic eccentric" came naturally to him, as he seemed to be a kind of intermediary between worlds: "as a Jew with a lordly disdain for the ancient ban on image-making; as a Russian who went beyond the realm of familiar self-sufficiency; or the son of poor parents, growing up in a large and needy family." Yet he went on to establish himself in the sophisticated world of "elegant artistic salons.":7 Through his imagination and strong memories Chagall was able to use typical motifs and subjects in most of his work: village scenes, peasant life, and intimate views of the small world of t...

    In the 1990s, Daniel Jamieson wrote The Flying Lovers of Vitebsk, a play concerning the life of Chagall and partner Bella. It has been revived multiple times, most recently in 2020 with Emma Rice directing a production which was live-streamed from the Bristol Old Vic and then made available for on-demand viewing, in partnership with theaters around the world.This production had Marc Antolin in the role of Chagall and Audrey Brisson playing Bella Chagall; produced during the COVID epidemic, it required the entire crew to quarantine together to make the live performance and broadcast possible.

    During his lifetime, Chagall received several honors: 1. In 1960, Brandeis University awarded Marc Chagall an honorary degree in Laws, at its 9th Commencement. 2. In 1977, the city of Jerusalem bestowed upon him the Yakir Yerushalayim(Worthy Citizen of Jerusalem) award. 3. Also in 1977, the government of France awarded him its highest honour, the Grand-Croix de la Legion d'honneur. 4. 1974: Member of the Royal Academy of Science, Letters and Fine Arts of Belgium. 1963 documentary Chagall, a short 1963 documentary, features Chagall. It won the 1964 Academy Award for Best Short Subject Documentary. Postage stamp tributes Because of the international acclaim he enjoyed and the popularity of his art, a number of countries have issued commemorative stamps in his honor depicting examples from his works. In 1963 France issued a stamp of his painting, The Married Couple of the Eiffel Tower. In 1969, Israel produced a stamp depicting his King David painting. In 1973 Israel released a 12-stam...

  5. IMM - Wikipedia › wiki › IMM_(disambiguation)

    Institut für Mikrotechnik Mainz (Mainz Institute of Microtechnology) Institute of Molecular Medicine (disambiguation) Instituto de Medicina Molecular (University of Lisbon Institute of Molecular Medicine) Institution of Mining and Metallurgy; International Mercantile Marine Co., a shipping trust in the early twentieth century

  6. Capital city - Wikipedia › wiki › Capital_city

    A capital or capital city is the municipality holding primary status in a department, country, state, province, or other administrative region, usually as its seat of the government. A capital is typically a city that physically encompasses the government's offices and meeting places; the status as capital is often designated by its law or ...

  7. Johannes Gutenberg - Wikipedia › wiki › Johannes_Gutenburg

    Johannes Gensfleisch zur Laden zum Gutenberg ( / ˈɡuːtənbɜːrɡ /; c. 1400 – February 3, 1468) was a German goldsmith, inventor, printer, and publisher who introduced printing to Europe with his mechanical movable-type printing press. His work started the Printing Revolution and is regarded as a milestone of the second millennium ...

  8. Death of Adolf Hitler - Wikipedia › wiki › Death_of_Adolf_Hitler

    Adolf Hitler was an Austrian-born German politician who was the leader of the Nazi Party , Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945, and Führer ('Leader') of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945. He committed suicide by gunshot on 30 April 1945 in his Führerbunker in Berlin. [a] [b] [c] Eva Braun , his wife of one day, committed suicide with him by taking cyanide . [d] In accordance with his prior ...

  9. List of biblical figures identified in extra-biblical sources ... › wiki › List_of_Biblical_figures

    List of biblical figures identified in extra-biblical sources. Language; Watch ...

  10. List of English monarchs - Wikipedia › wiki › List_of_English_monarchs

    Arguments are made for a few different kings thought to control enough Anglo-Saxon kingdoms to be deemed the first king of England. For example, Offa of Mercia and Egbert of Wesse

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