Malaria is a mosquito-borne disease caused by a parasite. People with malaria often experience fever, chills, and flu-like illness. Left untreated, they may develop severe complications and die. A parasite is an organism that lives on or in a host and gets its food from or at the expense of its host. Parasites can cause disease in humans.
Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease that affects humans and other animals. Malaria causes symptoms that typically include fever, tiredness, vomiting, and headaches. In severe cases, it can cause yellow skin, seizures, coma, or death. Symptoms usually begin ten to fifteen days after being bitten by an infected mosquito.
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Malaria is a disease caused by a parasite. The parasite is transmitted to humans through the bites of infected mosquitoes. People who have malaria usually feel very sick, with a high fever and shaking chills. Each year, approximately 210 million people are infected with malaria, and about 440,000 people die from the disease. Most of the people who die from the disease are young children in Africa.While the disease is uncommon in temperate climates, malaria is still common in tropical and subt...
A malaria infection is generally characterized by the following signs and symptoms: 1. Fever 2. Chills 3. Headache 4. Nausea and vomiting 5. Muscle pain and fatigueOther signs and symptoms may include: 1. Sweating 2. Chest or abdominal pain 3. CoughSome people who have malaria experience cycles of malaria \\"attacks.\\" An attack usually starts with shivering and chills, followed by a high fever, followed by sweating and a return to normal temperature. Malaria signs and symptoms typically begin w...
Malaria is caused by a type of microscopic parasite. The parasite is transmitted to humans most commonly through mosquito bites.
The biggest risk factor for developing malaria is to live in or to visit areas where the disease is common. There are many different varieties of malaria parasites. The variety that causes the most serious complications is most commonly found in: 1. African countries south of the Sahara Desert 2. The Asian subcontinent 3. New Guinea, the Dominican Republic and Haiti
Malaria can be fatal, particularly malaria caused by the variety of parasite that's common in tropical parts of Africa. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that 91 percent of all malaria deaths occur in Africa — most commonly in children under the age of 5.In most cases, malaria deaths are related to one or more serious complications, including: 1. Cerebral malaria. If parasite-filled blood cells block small blood vessels to your brain (cerebral malaria), swelling of your...
If you live in or are traveling to an area where malaria is common, take steps to avoid mosquito bites. Mosquitoes are most active between dusk and dawn. To protect yourself from mosquito bites, you should: 1. Cover your skin. Wear pants and long-sleeved shirts. 2. Apply insect repellant to skin and clothing. Sprays containing DEET can be used on skin and sprays containing permethrin are safe to apply to clothing. 3. Sleep under a net. Bed nets, particularly those treated with insecticide, he...
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Mar 07, 2019 · What is malaria? Malaria is a life-threatening disease. It’s typically transmitted through the bite of an infected Anopheles mosquito. Infected mosquitoes carry the Plasmodium parasite. When ...
- Darla Burke
Malaria is a serious and sometimes fatal disease caused by a parasite that commonly infects a certain type of mosquito which feeds on humans. People who get malaria are typically very sick with high fevers, shaking chills, and flu-like illness.
- Signs and symptoms
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Malaria is an acute febrile illness. In a non-immune individual, symptoms usually appear 1015 days after the infective mosquito bite. The first symptoms fever, headache, and chills may be mild and difficult to recognize as malaria. If not treated within 24 hours, P. falciparum malaria can progress to severe illness, often leading to death.
Children with severe malaria frequently develop one or more of the following symptoms: severe anaemia, respiratory distress in relation to metabolic acidosis, or cerebral malaria. In adults, multi-organ involvement is also frequent. In malaria endemic areas, people may develop partial immunity, allowing asymptomatic infections to occur.
In 2017, nearly half of the world's population was at risk of malaria. Most malaria cases and deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa. However, the WHO regions of South-East Asia, Eastern Mediterranean, Western Pacific, and the Americas are also at risk. In 2017, 90 countries and areas had ongoing malaria transmission. Some population groups are at considerably higher risk of contracting malaria, and developing severe disease, than others. These include infants, children under 5 years of age, pregnant women and patients with HIV/AIDS, as well as non-immune migrants, mobile populations and travellers. National malaria control programmes need to take special measures to protect these population groups from malaria infection, taking into consideration their specific circumstances. According to the latest World malaria report, released in November 2018, there were 219 million cases of malaria in 2017, up from 217 million cases in 2016. The estimated number of malaria deaths stood at 435 000 in 2017. In 2017, five countries accounted for nearly half of all malaria cases worldwide: Nigeria (25%), the Democratic Republic of the Congo (11%), Mozambique (5%), India (4%) and Uganda (4%). In areas with high transmission of malaria, children under 5 are particularly susceptible to infection, illness and death; more than two thirds (70%) of all malaria deaths occur in this age group. The number of under-5 malaria deaths has declined from 440 000 in 2010 to 285 000 in 2016. However, malaria remains a major killer of children under five years old, taking the life of a child every two minutes.
The WHO African Region continues to carry a disproportionately high share of the global malaria burden. In 2017, the region was home to 92% of malaria cases and 93% of malaria deaths.
In most cases, malaria is transmitted through the bites of female Anopheles mosquitoes. There are more than 400 different species of Anopheles mosquito; around 30 are malaria vectors of major importance. All of the important vector species bite between dusk and dawn. The intensity of transmission depends on factors related to the parasite, the vector, the human host, and the environment.
Anopheles mosquitoes lay their eggs in water, which hatch into larvae, eventually emerging as adult mosquitoes. The female mosquitoes seek a blood meal to nurture their eggs. Each species of Anopheles mosquito has its own preferred aquatic habitat; for example, some prefer small, shallow collections of fresh water, such as puddles and hoof prints, which are abundant during the rainy season in tropical countries.
Human immunity is another important factor, especially among adults in areas of moderate or intense transmission conditions. Partial immunity is developed over years of exposure, and while it never provides complete protection, it does reduce the risk that malaria infection will cause severe disease. For this reason, most malaria deaths in Africa occur in young children, whereas in areas with less transmission and low immunity, all age groups are at risk. Vector control is the main way to prevent and reduce malaria transmission. If coverage of vector control interventions within a specific area is high enough, then a measure of protection will be conferred across the community. WHO recommends protection for all people at risk of malaria with effective malaria vector control. Two forms of vector control insecticide-treated mosquito nets and indoor residual spraying are effective in a wide range of circumstances. Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are the preferred form of insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITNs) for public health programmes. In most settings, WHO recommends LLIN coverage for all people at risk of malaria. The most cost-effective way to achieve this is by providing LLINs free of charge, to ensure equal access for all. In parallel, effective behaviour change communication strategies are required to ensure that all people at risk of malaria sleep under a LLIN every night, and that the net is properly maintained. Indoor residual spraying (IRS) with insecticides is a powerful way to rapidly reduce malaria transmission. Its potential is realized when at least 80% of houses in targeted areas are sprayed. Indoor spraying is effective for 36 months, depending on the insecticide formulation used and the type of surface on which it is sprayed. In some settings, multiple spray rounds are needed to protect the population for the entire malaria season. Antimalarial medicines can also be used to prevent malaria. For travellers, malaria can be prevented through chemoprophylaxis, which suppresses the blood stage of malaria infections, thereby preventing malaria disease. For pregnant women living in moderate-to-high transmission areas, WHO recommends intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, at each scheduled antenatal visit after the first trimester. Similarly, for infants living in high-transmission areas of Africa, 3 doses of intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine are recommended, delivered alongside routine vaccinations. In 2012, WHO recommended Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention as an additional malaria prevention strategy for areas of the Sahel sub-region of Africa. The strategy involves the administration of monthly courses of amodiaquine plus sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine to all children under 5 years of age during the high transmission season. Much of the success in controlling malaria is due to vector control. Vector control is continues to be highly dependent on the use of pyrethroids, which are the only class of insecticides currently recommended for use in ITNs or LLINs. In recent years, mosquito resistance to pyrethroids has emerged evolved in Anopheles mosquitoes. Since 2010, 66many malaria-endemic countries have confirmed resistance to this class of insecticide. Resistance to organochlorines, carbamates and organophosphates, used for IRS, is also widespread. So far, 22 countries have confirmed In some areas, resistance to all 4 out of 5 classes of insecticides used for public health and 57 countries have reported resistance to 2 or more classes. No reports has been detected of resistance to neonicotinoids a fifth class of insecticide have been received so far. More information on the global status of insecticide resistance can be found in the Global Report on insecticide resistance in malaria vectors http://www.who.int/malaria/publications/atoz/9789241514057/en/ . Fortunately,Despite the emergence and spread of pyrethroid resistance, there is evidence showing that LLINs this resistance has only rarely been associated with decreased efficacy of LLINs, which continue to provide a substantial level of protection in most settings. This was evidenced in a large multi-country evaluation coordinated by WHO between 2011 and 2016, which found no evidence of association between insecticide resistance and malaria disease burden across study locations in 5 countries. Nevertheless, the spread of insecticide resistance threatens the effectiveness of vector control interventions. New insecticides and other tools are needed to address the emerging threat. Rotational use of different existing classes of insecticides for in IRS is recommended as one approach to manage insecticide resistance. However, malaria-endemic areas of sub-Saharan Africa and India are causing significant concern due to high levels of malaria transmission and widespread reports of insecticide resistance. The use of 2 different insecticides in a mosquito net offers an opportunity to mitigate the risk of the development and spread of insecticide resistance; developing these new nets is a priority. Several promising products for both IRS and nets are in the pipeline. DetectionMonitoring of insecticide resistance should be an essential component of all national malaria control efforts to ensure inform the selection of that the most effective vector control methods are being used. Countries are encouraged to develop national plans for insecticide resistance monitoring and management. A framework to support this process was released by WHO in 2017. The choice of insecticide for IRS should always be informed by recent, local data on the susceptibility of target vectors. To ensure a timely and coordinated global response to the threat of insecticide resistance, WHO worked with a wide range of stakeholders to develop the \\"Global Plan for Insecticide Resistance Management in Malaria Vectors (GPIRM)\\", which was released in May 2012. Consequently, WHOs Malaria Policy Advisory Committee in September 2014 recommended adopting the goal of eliminating P. falciparum malaria in this subregion by 2030. WHO launched the Strategy for Malaria Elimination in the Greater Mekong Subregion (20152030) at the World Health Assembly in May 2015, which was endorsed by all the countries in the subregion. With technical guidance from WHO, all GMS countries have developed national malaria elimination plans. Together with partners, WHO is providing ongoing support for country elimination efforts through the Mekong Malaria Elimination programme, an initiative that evolved from the ERAR. Surveillance entails tracking of the disease and programmatic responses, and taking action based on the data received. Currently, many countries with a high burden of malaria have weak surveillance systems and are not in a position to assess disease distribution and trends, making it difficult to optimize responses and respond to outbreaks.
Early diagnosis and treatment of malaria reduces disease and prevents deaths. It also contributes to reducing malaria transmission. The best available treatment, particularly for P. falciparum malaria, is artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT).
WHO recommends that all cases of suspected malaria be confirmed using parasite-based diagnostic testing (either microscopy or rapid diagnostic test) before administering treatment. Results of parasitological confirmation can be available in 30 minutes or less. Treatment, solely on the basis of symptoms should only be considered when a parasitological diagnosis is not possible. More detailed recommendations are available in the \\"WHO Guidelines for the treatment of malaria\\", third edition, published in April 2015.
Resistance to antimalarial medicines is a recurring problem. Resistance of P. falciparum to previous generations of medicines, such as chloroquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP), became widespread in the 1950s and 1960s, undermining malaria control efforts and reversing gains in child survival.
WHO recommends the routine monitoring of antimalarial drug resistance, and supports countries to strengthen their efforts in this important area of work.
An ACT contains both the drug artemisinin and a partner drug. In recent years, parasite resistance to artemisinin has been detected in 5 countries of the Greater Mekong subregion: Cambodia, Lao Peoples Democratic Republic, Myanmar, Thailand and Viet Nam. Studies have confirmed that artemisinin resistance has emerged independently in many areas of this subregion.
In 2013, WHO launched the Emergency response to artemisinin resistance (ERAR) in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS), a high-level plan of attack to contain the spread of drug-resistant parasites and to provide life-saving tools for all populations at risk of malaria. But even as this work was under way, additional pockets of resistance emerged independently in new geographic areas of the subregion. In parallel, there were reports of increased resistance to ACT partner drugs in some settings. A new approach was needed to keep pace with the changing malaria landscape.
Malaria elimination is defined as the interruption of local transmission of a specified malaria parasite species in a defined geographical area as a result of deliberate activities. Continued measures are required to prevent re-establishment of transmission. Malaria eradication is defined as the permanent reduction to zero of the worldwide incidence of malaria infection caused by human malaria parasites as a result of deliberate activities. Interventions are no longer required once eradication has been achieved.
Countries that have achieved at least 3 consecutive years of 0 local cases of malaria are eligible to apply for the WHO certification of malaria elimination. In recent years, 8 countries have been certified by the WHO Director-General as having eliminated malaria: United Arab Emirates (2007), Morocco (2010), Turkmenistan (2010), Armenia (2011), Maldives (2015), Sri Lanka (2016), Kyrgyzstan (2016) and Paraguay (2018). The WHO Framework for Malaria Elimination (2017) provides a detailed set of tools and strategies for achieving and maintaining elimination.
Malaria symptoms can develop as early as 7 days after being bitten by an infectious mosquito in a malaria-endemic area and as late as several months or more after exposure. Suspected or confirmed malaria, especially P. falciparum , is a medical emergency requiring urgent intervention, as clinical deterioration can occur rapidly and unpredictably.