Malaria symptoms and treatmentAnswer from 2 sources
- ^Malaria treatment Allopathic cure for Malaria: Physicians generally prescribe drugs based on quinine, nivaquine, halfan, lariam or fansidar to cure malaria. However in recent times, Plasmodium falciparum, the most virulent agent of malaria has developed resistance to standard chloroquine based treatments.
- ^Malaria symptoms Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease affecting humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganisms) belonging to the Plasmodium type. Malaria causes symptoms that typically include fever, feeling tired, vomiting, and headaches. In severe cases...
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- Risk Factors
Malaria is a disease caused by a parasite. The parasite is spread to humans through the bites of infected mosquitoes. People who have malaria usually feel very sick with a high fever and shaking chills. While the disease is uncommon in temperate climates, malaria is still common in tropical and subtropical countries. Each year nearly 290 million people are infected with malaria, and more than 400,000 people die of the disease. To reduce malaria infections, world health programs distribute preventive drugs and insecticide-treated bed nets to protect people from mosquito bites. A partially effective vaccine is being piloted in a few African countries, but there is no vaccine for travelers. Protective clothing, bed nets and insecticides can protect you while traveling. You also can take preventive medicine before, during and after a trip to a high-risk area. Many malaria parasites have developed resistance to common drugs used to treat the disease.
Signs and symptoms of malaria may include: 1. Fever 2. Chills 3. General feeling of discomfort 4. Headache 5. Nausea and vomiting 6. Diarrhea 7. Abdominal pain 8. Muscle or joint pain 9. Fatigue 10. Rapid breathing 11. Rapid heart rate 12. Cough Some people who have malaria experience cycles of malaria "attacks." An attack usually starts with shivering and chills, followed by a high fever, followed by sweating and a return to normal temperature. Malaria signs and symptoms typically begin within a few weeks after being bitten by an infected mosquito. However, some types of malaria parasites can lie dormant in your body for up to a year.
Malaria is caused by a single-celled parasite of the genus plasmodium. The parasite is transmitted to humans most commonly through mosquito bites.
The greatest risk factor for developing malaria is to live in or to visit areas where the disease is common. These include the tropical and subtropical regions of: 1. Sub-Saharan Africa 2. South and Southeast Asia 3. Pacific Islands 4. Central America and northern South America The degree of risk depends on local malaria control, seasonal changes in malaria rates and the precautions you take to prevent mosquito bites.
Malaria can be fatal, particularly when caused by the plasmodium species common in Africa. The World Health Organization estimates that about 94% of all malaria deaths occur in Africa — most commonly in children under the age of 5. Malaria deaths are usually related to one or more serious complications, including: 1. Cerebral malaria.If parasite-filled blood cells block small blood vessels to your brain (cerebral malaria), swelling of your brain or brain damage may occur. Cerebral malaria may cause seizures and coma. 2. Breathing problems.Accumulated fluid in your lungs (pulmonary edema) can make it difficult to breathe. 3. Organ failure.Malaria can damage the kidneys or liver or cause the spleen to rupture. Any of these conditions can be life-threatening. 4. Anemia.Malaria may result in not having enough red blood cells for an adequate supply of oxygen to your body's tissues (anemia). 5. Low blood sugar.Severe forms of malaria can cause low blood sugar (hypoglycemia), as can quinin...
If you live in or are traveling to an area where malaria is common, take steps to avoid mosquito bites. Mosquitoes are most active between dusk and dawn. To protect yourself from mosquito bites, you should: 1. Cover your skin.Wear pants and long-sleeved shirts. Tuck in your shirt, and tuck pant legs into socks. 2. Apply insect repellent to skin. Use an insect repellent registered with the Environmental Protection Agency on any exposed skin. These include repellents that contain DEET, picaridin, IR3535, oil of lemon eucalyptus (OLE), para-menthane-3,8-diol (PMD) or 2-undecanone. Do not use a spray directly on your face. Do not use products with OLE or PMDon children under age 3. 3. Apply repellent to clothing.Sprays containing permethrin are safe to apply to clothing. 4. Sleep under a net.Bed nets, particularly those treated with insecticides, such as permethrin, help prevent mosquito bites while you are sleeping.
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- Preparing For Your Appointment
To diagnose malaria, your doctor will likely review your medical history and recent travel, conduct a physical exam, and order blood tests. Blood tests can indicate: 1. The presence of the parasite in the blood, to confirm that you have malaria 2. Which type of malaria parasite is causing your symptoms 3. If your infection is caused by a parasite resistant to certain drugs 4. Whether the disease is causing any serious complications Some blood tests can take several days to complete, while others can produce results in less than 15 minutes. Depending on your symptoms, your doctor may order additional diagnostic tests to assess possible complications.
Malaria is treated with prescription drugs to kill the parasite. The types of drugs and the length of treatment will vary, depending on: 1. Which type of malaria parasite you have 2. The severity of your symptoms 3. Your age 4. Whether you're pregnant
Explore Mayo Clinic studiestesting new treatments, interventions and tests as a means to prevent, detect, treat or manage this condition.
If you suspect you have malaria or that you've been exposed, you're likely to start by seeing your family doctor. However, in some cases when you call to set up an appointment, you may be referred to an infectious disease specialist. If you have severe symptoms — especially during or after travel in an area where malaria is common — seek emergency medical attention.
Treatment of malaria depends on many factors including disease severity, the species of malaria parasite causing the infection, and the part of the world in which the infection was acquired. The latter two characteristics help determine the probability that the organism is resistant to certain antimalarial drugs.
Malaria Treatment. The treatment your doctor recommends will depend on things like: The type of parasite you have; How bad your symptoms are; The geographic area where you got infected
Mar 07, 2019 · In some cases, symptoms may not develop for several months. Some malarial parasites can enter the body but will be dormant for long periods of time. Common symptoms of malaria include: shaking...
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Nov 19, 2018 · Treatment aims to eliminate the Plasmodium parasite from the bloodstream. Those without symptoms may be treated for infection to reduce the risk of disease transmission in the surrounding...
- What Is Malaria?
- Expected Duration
- When to Call A Professional
- Further Information
Malaria is an infection caused by single-celled parasites that enter the blood through the bite of an Anopheles mosquito. These parasites, called plasmodia, belong to at least five species. Most human infections are caused by either Plasmodium falciparum or Plasmodium vivax. Plasmodium parasites spend several parts of their life cycle inside humans and another part inside mosquitoes. During the human part of their life cycle, Plasmodiumparasites infect and multiply inside liver cells and red blood cells. Some infected blood cells burst because of the multiplying parasites inside. Many more infected red blood cells are broken down by your spleen or liver, which filter out and remove damaged or aging red blood cells from circulation. Both Plasmodium parasites in the bloodstream and irritants that are released from broken red blood cells cause malaria symptoms. Most deaths from malaria are caused by P. falciparum, which causes severe disease. Before P. falciparummalaria causes a red bl...
Symptoms of malaria can begin as early as six to eight days after a bite by an infected mosquito. They include: 1. High fever (up to 105 degrees Fahrenheit) with shaking chills 2. Profuse sweating when the fever suddenly drops 3. Fatigue 4. Headache 5. Muscle aches 6. Abdominal discomfort 7. Nausea, vomiting 8. Feeling faint when you stand up or sit up quickly If treatment is delayed, more severe complications of malaria can occur. Most people who develop these complications are infected with the P. falciparum species. They include: 1. Brain tissue injury, which can cause extreme sleepiness, delirium, unconsciousness, convulsions and coma 2. Pulmonary edema, which is a dangerous accumulation of fluid inside the lungs that interferes with breathing 3. Kidney failure 4. Severe anemia, resulting from the destruction of infected red blood cells and decrease in the production of new red blood cells 5. Yellow discoloration of the skin 6. Low blood sugar
Your doctor may suspect that you have malaria based on your symptoms and your history of foreign travel. When your doctor examines you, he or she may find an enlarged spleen because the spleen commonly swells during a malaria infection. To confirm the diagnosis of malaria, your doctor will take samples of blood to be smeared on glass slides. These blood smears will be stained with special chemicals in a laboratory and examined for Plasmodium parasites. Blood tests will be done to determine whether malaria has affected your levels of red blood cells and platelets, the ability of your blood to clot, your blood chemistry, and your liver and kidney function.
With proper treatment, symptoms of malaria usually go away quickly, with a cure within two weeks. Without proper treatment, malaria episodes (fever, chills, sweating) can return periodically over a period of years. After repeated exposure, patients will become partially immune and develop milder disease.
Researchers are working to create a vaccine against malaria. Vaccination is expected to become an important tool to prevent malaria in the future. One way to prevent malaria is to avoid mosquito bites with the following strategies: 1. As much as possible, stay indoors in well-screened areas, especially at night when mosquitoes are most active. 2. Use mosquito nets and bed nets. It's best to treat the nets with the insect repellant permethrin. 3. Wear clothing that covers most of your body. 4. Use an insect repellent that contains DEET or picaridin. These repellents are applied directly to your skin, except around your mouth and eyes. If you choose a picaridin-based repellant, you will need to reapply it every several hours. 5. Apply permethrin to clothing. It is strongly recommended that you take preventive medication when you travel to a region of the world that has malaria. Keep in mind that these medications can prevent most malaria infections, but travelers occasionally get mala...
Malaria is treated with antimalarial drugs and measures to control symptoms, including medications to control fever, antiseizure medications when needed, fluids and electrolytes. The type of medications that are used to treat malaria depends on the severity of the disease and the likelihood of chloroquine resistance. The drugs available to treat malaria include: 1. Chloroquine 2. Quinine 3. Hydroxychloroquine (Plaquenil) 4. Artemether and lumefantrine (Coartem) 5. Atovaquone (Mepron) 6. Proguanil (sold as a generic) 7. Mefloquine 8. Clindamycin (Cleocin) 9. Doxycycline People with falciparum malaria have the most severe symptoms. People with falciparum malaria may need to be monitored in the intensive care unit of a hospital during the first days of treatment because the disease can cause breathing failure, coma and kidney failure. For pregnant women, chloroquine is the preferred treatment for malaria. Quinine, proguanil and clindamycin typically are used for pregnant people with ma...
See your doctor before you travel to a tropical country where malaria is common, so that you can take medications to prevent malaria. After you return, call your doctor if you develop a high fever within the first several months.
In the United States, most people with malaria have an excellent prognosis if they are treated properly with antimalarial drugs. Without treatment, malaria can be fatal, particularlyP. falciparum. People with severe malaria have the greatest danger of death. From 10% to 40% of people with severe malaria die even with advanced medical treatment. P. falciparumis more likely to cause severe disease among young children, pregnant women and travelers who are exposed to malaria for the first time.
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