Mandarin (/ ˈ m æ n d ər ɪ n / ; simplified Chinese: 官话; traditional Chinese: 官話; pinyin: Guānhuà; lit. 'speech of officials') is a group of Sinitic (Chinese) languages natively spoken across most of northern and southwestern China.
Mandarin Chinese or simply Mandarin ( / ˈmændərɪn / ( listen); simplified Chinese: 官话; traditional Chinese: 官話; pinyin: Guānhuà; literally: "speech of officials") is the language of government and education of the Chinese mainland and Taiwan, with the notable exceptions of Hong Kong and Macau where a local dialect of Chinese called Cantonese is more often used.Traditional ModernSimplifiedPinyinGloss人—rénhuman女—nǚfemale human子—zǐchild日—rìsun
The term "Mandarin" is a translation of Guānhuà (官话; 官話, literally "bureaucrats' speech"), which referred to Imperial Mandarin. In Chinese Guoyu and Putonghua. The term Guóyǔ (國語 / 国语) or the "national language", had previously been used by the Manchu-ruled Qing dynasty of China to refer to the Manchurian language.
- Examples of variations
Chinese, also known as Sinitic, is a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family consisting of hundreds of local varieties, many of which are not mutually intelligible. Variation is particularly strong in the more mountainous southeast of mainland China. The varieties are typically classified into several groups: Mandarin, Wu, Min, Xiang, Gan, Hakka and Yue, though some varieties remain unclassified. These groups are neither clades nor individual languages defined by mutual intelligibility, but r
At the end of the 2nd millennium BC, a form of Chinese was spoken in a compact area around the lower Wei River and middle Yellow River. From there it expanded eastwards across the North China Plain to Shandong and then south into the valley of the Yangtze River and beyond to the hills of south China. As the language spread, it replaced formerly dominant languages in those areas, and regional differences grew. Simultaneously, especially in periods of political unity, there was a tendency to promo
Dialectologist Jerry Norman estimated that there are hundreds of mutually unintelligible varieties of Chinese. These varieties form a dialect continuum, in which differences in speech generally become more pronounced as distances increase, although there are also some sharp boundaries. However, the rate of change in mutual intelligibility varies immensely depending on region. For example, the varieties of Mandarin spoken in all three northeastern Chinese provinces are mutually intelligible, but
The usual unit of analysis is the syllable, traditionally analysed as consisting of an initial consonant, a final and a tone. In general, southern varieties have fewer initial consonants than northern and central varieties, but more often preserve the Middle Chinese final consonants. Some varieties, such as Cantonese and the Shanghai dialect, include syllabic nasals as independent syllables.
The Min languages are often regarded as furthest removed linguistically from Standard Chinese in phonology, grammar, and vocabulary. Historically, the Min languages were the first to diverge from the rest of the Chinese languages. The Min languages are also the group with the greatest amount of internal diversity and are often regarded as consisting of at least five separate languages, e.g. Northern Min, Southern Min, Central Min, Eastern Min, and Puxian Min.
From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Standard Chinese or Standard Mandarin, is the official modern Chinese spoken language used in mainland China and Taiwan and is one of the four official languages of Singapore. It is based off the Mandarin dialect and should not be confused with other varieties of Chinese.EnglishChinese ( Traditional )Chinese ( Simplified )PinyinHello你好你好NǐhǎoWhat's your name?你叫什麼名字？你叫什么名字？Nǐ jiào shénme míngzi?My name is...我叫...我叫...Wǒ jiào...How are you?你好嗎？/ 你怎麼樣？你好吗？/ 你怎么样？Nǐ hǎo ma? / Nǐ zěnmeyàng?
A Mandarin Chinese and Miao mixed language Maojia: 猫家话: 貓家話: A Qo-Xiong Miao and Chinese dialects mixed language Shaozhou Tuhua: 韶州土话: 韶州土話: A group of distinctive Chinese dialects in South China, including Yuebei Tuhua and Xiangnan Tuhua. It incorporates several Chinese dialects, as well as Yao languages. Tangwang ...
Standard Chinese is based on the Beijing dialect of Mandarin. Actual production varies widely among speakers, as they introduce elements of their native varieties (although television and radio announcers are chosen for their ability to produce the standard variety).
- History and usage
- Differences from Mainland Mandarin
Standard Taiwanese Mandarin closely resembles and is mutually intelligible with Standard Chinese, the official language of mainland China, with some divergences in pronunciation, vocabulary, and grammar. These divergences are the result of a number of factors, including the unique influence of other languages in Taiwan, mainly, Japanese, Taiwanese Hokkien, and to a lesser extent, Taiwanese Hakka. Additionally, the political separation of Taiwan and mainland China after the Chinese Civil War ende
Large-scale Han Chinese settlement of Taiwan began in the 17th century with Hoklo immigrants from Fujian province speaking Southern Min, and to a lesser extent, Hakka immigrants speaking their language. Official communications were done in Mandarin, but the primary languages of everyday life were Hokkien or to a lesser extent Hakka. After its defeat in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Qing dynasty ceded Taiwan to the Empire of Japan, which governed the island as an Imperial colony from 1895 to 1
Taiwanese braille is based on different letter assignments than Mainland Chinese braille.
Chinese language romanization in Taiwan differs somewhat from in the mainland, where Hanyu Pinyin is used almost exclusively. A competing pinyin system, Tongyong Pinyin, had been formally revealed in 1998 with the support of Taipei mayor Chen Shuibian. In 1999, however, the Legis
For non-recurring events, the construction involving 有 is used where the sentence final particle 了 would normally be applied to denote perfect. For instance, Taiwanese Mandarin more commonly uses "你有看醫生嗎？" to mean "Have you seen a doctor?" whereas Putonghua ...
Mandarin equivalents and their pronunciation on Wu Chinese are in parentheses. All IPA transcriptions and examples  listed below are from Shanghainese. 「鑊子」 (鍋子) [ɦɔʔ tsɨ] (ku tsɨ) wok, cooking pot. The Mandarin equivalent term is also used, but both of them are synonyms and are thus interchangeable.
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