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  1. Mars, Incorporated - Wikipedia › wiki › Mars,_Incorporated

    He started the Mars Candy Factory in 1911 with Ethel V. Mars, his second wife, in Tacoma, Washington. This factory produced and sold fresh candy wholesale, [15] but ultimately the venture failed [17] [18] because there was a better established business, Brown & Haley , also operating in Tacoma. [19]

  2. M1911 pistol - Wikipedia › wiki › M1911_pistol
    • History
    • Design
    • Versions
    • Users
    • Specifications
    • State Firearm
    • Similar Pistols
    • See Also
    • Further Reading
    • External Links

    Early history and adaptations

    The M1911 pistol originated in the late 1890s as the result of a search for a suitable self-loading (or semi-automatic) pistol to replace the variety of revolvers then in service. The United States was adopting new firearms at a phenomenal rate; several new pistols and two all-new service rifles (the M1892/96/98 Krag and M1895 Navy Lee), as well as a series of revolvers by Colt and Smith & Wesson for the Army and Navy, were adopted just in that decade. The next decade would see a similar pace...

    Service history

    Following its success in trials, the Colt pistol was formally adopted by the Army on March 29, 1911, when it was designated Model of 1911, later changed to Model 1911, in 1917, and then M1911, in the mid-1920s. The Director of Civilian Marksmanship began manufacture of M1911 pistols for members of the National Rifle Association in August 1912. Approximately 100 pistols stamped "N.R.A." below the serial number were manufactured at Springfield Armory and by Colt. The M1911 was formally adopted...

    Browning's basic M1911 design has seen very little change throughout its production life.[page needed] The basic principle of the pistol is recoil operation.[page needed] As the expanding combustion gases force the bullet down the barrel, they give reverse momentum to the slide and barrel which are locked together during this portion of the firing cycle. After the bullet has left the barrel, the slide and barrel continue rearward a short distance.[page needed] At this point, a link pivots the rear of the barrel down, out of locking recesses in the slide, and the barrel is stopped by making contact with the lower barrel lugs against the frame. As the slide continues rearward, a claw extractor pulls the spent casing from the firing chamber and an ejector strikes the rear of the case, pivoting it out and away from the pistol through the ejection port. The slide stops its rearward motion then, and is propelled forward again by the recoil spring to strip a fresh cartridge from the magazi...

    MEU(SOC) pistol

    Marine Expeditionary Units formerly issued M1911s to Force Recon units. Hand-selected Colt M1911A1 frames were gutted, deburred, and prepared for additional use by the USMC Precision Weapon Section (PWS) at Marine Corps Base Quantico. They were then assembled with after-market grip safeties, ambidextrous thumb safeties, triggers, improved high-visibility sights, accurized barrels, grips, and improved Wilson magazines.These hand-made pistols were tuned to specifications and preferences of end...

    Civilian models

    1. Colt Commander: In 1949 Colt began production of the Colt Commander, an aluminum-framed 1911 with a 4 ¼ inch barrel and a rounded hammer. It was developed in response to an Army requirement issued in 1949, for a lighter replacement for the M1911 pistol, for issue to officers. In 1970, Colt introduced the all-steel "Colt Combat Commander", with an optional model in satin nickel. To differentiate between the two models, the aluminum-framed model was renamed the "Lightweight Commander”.[citat...

    Custom models

    Since its inception, the M1911 has lent itself to easy customization. Replacement sights, grips, and other aftermarket accessories are the most commonly offered parts. Since the 1950s and the rise of competitive pistol shooting, many companies have been offering the M1911 as a base model for major customization. These modifications can range from changing the external finish, checkering the frame, and hand fitting custom hammers, triggers, and sears. Some modifications include installing comp...

    Current users in the U.S.

    Many military and law enforcement organizations in the U.S. and other countries continue to use (often modified) M1911A1 pistols including Los Angeles Police Department SWAT and S.I.S., the FBI Hostage Rescue Team, FBI regional SWAT teams, and 1st Special Forces Operational Detachment—Delta (Delta Force). The M1911A1 is popular among the general public in the U.S. for practical and recreational purposes. The pistol is commonly used for concealed carry thanks in part to a single-stack magazine...

    International users

    1. The Brazilian company IMBEL (Indústria de Material Bélico do Brasil) still produces the pistol in several variants for civilian, military and law enforcement uses in .45 ACP, .40 S&W, .380 ACP and 9 mm calibers. IMBEL also produces for US civilian market as the supplier to Springfield Armory.[citation needed] 2. The Canadian company Seraphim Armoury brands Filipino manufactured pistols in several models for domestic and export use. Pistols are available in .45 ACP and 9 mm calibers for civ...

    Cartridge: .45 ACP
    Other cartridge chamberings include .22 Long Rifle, .38 Super, 9×19mm Parabellum, .40 S&W, 10mm Auto, .400 Corbon, .50 GI, .455 Webley, 9×23mm Winchester, .357 SIGand more. The most popular alterna...
    Barrel: 5 in (127 mm) Government, 4.25 in (108 mm) Commander, and the 3.5 in (89 mm) Officer's ACP. Some modern "carry" guns have significantly shorter barrels and frames, while others use standard...
    Rate of twist: 1:16. This means 16 inches (406 mm) of barrel traveled per rotation, or 1:35.5 calibers (.45 ACP)

    On March 18, 2011, the U.S. state of Utah—as a way of honoring M1911 designer John Browning, who was born and raised in the state—adopted the Browning M1911 as the "official firearmof Utah".

    Hogg, Ian V.; Walter, John (2004). Pistols of the World (4 ed.). David & Charles. p. 225. ISBN 978-0-87349-460-1.
    Thompson, Leroy (2004). Combat Handguns. Greenhill. ISBN 9781853675768.
    Thompson, Leroy (20 May 2011). The Colt 1911 Pistol. Weapon 9. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 9781849084338.
    Meadows, Edward S. U.S. Military Automatic Pistols: 1894–1920. Richard Ellis Publications, 1993.
    M1911 Pistols Organization main page, Detailed animated drawing of all operational parts and Syd's 1911 Notebook on
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  4. Mars - Wikipedia › wiki › Mars

    Nomenclature. In English, the planet is named after the Roman god of war, an association made because of its red color, which suggests blood. The adjectival form of Latin Mars is Martius, which provides the English words Martian, used as an adjective or for a putative inhabitant of Mars, and Martial, used as an adjective corresponding to Terrestrial for Earth.

    • 24.007 km/s, (86430 km/h; 53700 mph)
    • 686.971 d, (1.88082 yr; 668.5991 sols)
    • 1.025957 d, 24ʰ 37ᵐ 22.7ˢ
    • 0.636 (0.4–0.87) kPa, 0.00628 atm
  5. 1911 - Wikipedia › wiki › 1911

    1911 was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar, the 1911th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 911th year of the 2nd millennium, the 11th year of the 20th century, and the 2nd year of the 1910s decade. As of the start of 1911, the ...

  6. Mars - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia › wiki › Mars
    • Appearance
    • Moons
    • Physical Geography
    • Observation of Mars
    • Life on Mars
    • Other Websites

    Mars is a terrestrial planet and made of rock. The ground there is red because of iron oxide (rust) in the rocks and dust. The planet's atmosphere is very thin. It is mostly carbon dioxide with some argon and nitrogen and tiny amounts of other gases including oxygen. The temperatures on Mars are colder than on Earth, because it is farther away from the Sun and has less air to keep heat in. There is water ice and frozen carbon dioxide at the north and south poles. Mars does not have any liquid wateron the surface now, but signs of run-off on the surface were probably caused by water. The average thicknessof the planet's crust is about 50 km (31 mi), with a maximum thickness of 125 km (78 mi).

    Mars has two small moons, called Phobos and Deimos. The origin of Mars' moons is unknown and controversial. One theory is that the moons are captured asteroids. However, the moons' near circular orbits and low inclination relative to the Martian equator are not in agreement with the capture hypothesis. Estimates of the mass ejected by a large Borealis-size impact vary. Simulations suggest that a body about 0.02 of Mars mass (~0.002 Earth mass) in size can produce a sizable debris disk in Martian orbit. Much of the material would stay close to Mars.There are several other large impact basins on Mars that could also have ejected enough debris to form the moons. In the next billion years, Phobos will probably be reformed into a ring around Mars.

    Lack of magnetic field

    Mars does not have a global magnetic field. Despite this, observations show that parts of the planet's crust have been magnetized. This suggests that polarity reversals have occurred in the past. This paleomagnetism is similar to the magnetic striping found on Earth's ocean floors. One theory is that these bands suggest plate tectonic activity on Mars four billion years ago, before the planetary dynamostopped working and the planet's magnetic field faded.


    A Martian day is called a sol, and is a little longer than an Earth day. Mars rotates in 24 hours and 37 minutes. It rotates on a tilted axis, just like the Earth does, so it has four different seasons. Of all the planets in the Solar System, the seasons of Mars are the most Earth-like, due to their similar axial tilt. The lengths of the Martian seasons are almost twice those of Earth's, as Mars's greater distance from the Sun leads to the Martian year being almost two Earth years long. Marti...


    A 2015 report says Martian dark streaks on the surface were affected by water. Liquid water cannot exist on the surface of Mars due to its low atmospheric pressure (there's not enough air to hold it in), except at the lowest elevations for short periods. The two polar ice caps appear to be made largely of frozen water. The amount of ice in the south polar ice cap, if melted, would be enough to cover the entire planet's surface 11 meters deep. A permafrostmantle stretches from the pole to lati...

    Our records of watching and recording Mars start with ancient Egyptian astronomers in the 2nd millennium BC. Detailed observations of the location of Mars were made by Babylonian astronomers who developed methods using math to predict the future position of the planet. The ancient Greek philosophers and astronomers developed a model of the solar system with the Earth at the center ('geocentric'), instead of the sun. They used this model to explain the planet's motions. Indian and Islamic astronomers estimated the size of Mars and its distance from Earth. Similar work was done by Chineseastronomers. In the 16th century, Nicholas Copernicus proposed a model for the Solar System in which the planets follow circular orbits about the Sun. This 'heliocentric' model was the beginning of modern astronomy. It was revised by Johannes Kepler, who gave an elliptical orbitfor Mars which better fit the data from our observations. The first observations of Mars by telescope was by Galileo Galilei...

    Because Mars is the one of the closest planets to Earth in the Solar System, many have wondered if there is any kind of life on Mars. Today we know that the kind of life, if any, would be some simple bacteria-type organism.

    Mars Profile by NASA's Solar System Exploration
    Mars Archived 2009-08-10 at the Wayback Machine -
    • 249200000 km, (154800000 mi; 1.666 AU)
    • 227939200 km, (141634900 mi; 1.523679 AU)
    • 206700000 km, (128400000 mi; 1.382 AU)
    • Makhluk Martian
  7. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia › wiki › Main_Page

    The storming of Caen. The Battle of Caen on 26 July 1346 was an assault on the French-held town by a force of archers and men-at-arms, part of an invading English army under King Edward III during the Hundred Years' War. This force, nominally commanded by the Earls of Warwick and Northampton, was eager for plunder, and attacked against orders ...

  8. HMS Attack (1911) - Wikipedia › wiki › HMS_Attack_(1911)

    HMS Attack was an Acheron-class destroyer built in 1911, which served during the First World War and was sunk in 1917 in the Mediterranean by a German U-boat. She was the third ship of the name to serve in the Royal Navy .

  9. HMS Mars (1896) - Wikipedia › wiki › HMS_Mars_(1896)

    HMS Mars was a Royal Navy pre-dreadnought battleship of the Majestic class, the seventh member of a class of nine ships. The ship was laid down in the Laird Brothers shipyard in June 1894, she was launched in March 1896, and she was commissioned into the fleet in June 1897.

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