Mary I (18 February 1516 – 17 November 1558), also known as Mary Tudor, and as "Bloody Mary" by her Protestant opponents, was Queen of England and Ireland from July 1553 until her death in 1558. She is best known for her vigorous attempt to reverse the English Reformation , which had begun during the reign of her father, Henry VIII .
Feb 14, 2021 · Mary I, also called Mary Tudor, byname Bloody Mary, (born February 18, 1516, Greenwich, near London, England—died November 17, 1558, London), the first queen to rule England (1553–58) in her own right. She was known as Bloody Mary for her persecution of Protestants in a vain attempt to restore Roman Catholicism in England.
Mary I (18 February 1516 – 17 November 1558), also known as Mary Tudor, was Queen regnant of England and Ireland from 19 July 1553 until her death. She was the oldest daughter of Henry VIII, and the only child of Catherine of Aragon who survived childhood. Mary succeeded her short-lived half-brother, Edward VI, to the English throne.
Mar 11, 2019 · Mary was the first queen to rule England in her own right with full coronation. She's also known for attempting to restore Roman Catholicism over Protestantism in England. Mary was removed from the succession in her father's marriage disputes during some periods of her childhood and early adulthood. Occupation: Queen of England
- Mary I was declared illegitimate by her father, Henry VIII. The only surviving child of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon, Mary I was effectively bastardised when her father divorced her mother in order to marry Anne Boleyn.
- Mary I remained a devout Catholic. Mary was later named heir to the throne after her younger half-brother Edward – but only after she had agreed to recognise their father as head of the church.
- Mary was the orchestrator of an extraordinary coup d’état. The first queen to rule England in her own right (rather than a queen through marriage to a king), Mary acceded the throne following her brother’s death in July 1553 in what Anna Whitelock describes as “an extraordinary coup d’état”.
- Mary I is remembered as a bloody queen. Mary I is remembered for attempting to reverse the Reformation and return England to Catholicism. As her reign progressed, Mary “grew more and more fervent in her desire”: she restored papal supremacy, abandoned the title of Supreme Head of the Church and reintroduced Roman Catholic bishops.
- Early Life
- Style and Arms
- See Also
- Further Reading
Template:House of TudorMary was the second daughter and fifth child of Henry VIII and his first wife, Catherine of Aragon. A stillborn sister and three short-lived brothers, including the prince Henry, had preceded her. Through her mother, she was a granddaughter of King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain, famous for driving the Muslims from the Iberian Peninsula, uniting modern Spain, and funding Christopher Columbus's voyage to the New World. She was born at the Palace of Placentia in Greenwich, London, on Monday 18 February 1516. She was baptised on the following Thursday with Thomas Cardinal Wolsey standing as her godfather. The Princess Mary was a precocious but sickly child who had poor eyesight, sinus conditions and bad headaches. Some authors believe that her poor health was from congenital syphilistransferred to her from her mother, who presumably would have contracted the disease from Mary's father. Whether or not she had the disease is debated, however, as the story em...
As Edward VI did not want the Crown to go to either the Lady Mary or the Lady Elizabeth, he excluded them from the line of succession in his will. This exclusion was unlawful, as it was made by a minor and contradicted the Act of Succession passed in 1544 which had restored Mary and Elizabeth to the line of succession. Under the guidance of John Dudley, 1st Duke of Northumberland, Edward VI instead devised that he should be succeeded by Lady Jane Grey, a descendant of Henry VIII's younger sister. Thus, after Edward died on 6 July 1553, Lady Jane Grey was proclaimed Queen. Jane's accession was met with popular disapproval, which was suppressed by the use of force; a young boy so bold as to hail "Queen Mary" had his ears cut off as punishment.Template:Cn Despite this, much of the country remained devoted to MaryTemplate:Cn and on 19 July, Jane's accession proclamation was deemed to have been made under coercion and was revoked; Mary was proclaimed Queen in her place. On 3 August, 1553...
Mary's first act of Parliament retroactively validated Henry VIII's marriage to Catherine of Aragon, and legitimated the Queen. Now 37, Mary turned her attention to getting a husband, to father an heir in order to prevent her half-sister, Princess Elizabeth, from succeeding to the throne. Mary rejected Edward Courtenay, 1st Earl of Devon, as a prospect when her first cousin, the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, suggested she marry his only son, the Spanish prince Philip, later Philip II of Spain. The marriage, a purely political alliance for Philip, who admired her dignity but felt "no carnal love for her",  was extremely unpopular with the English. Lord Chancellor Gardiner and the House of Commons petitioned her to consider marrying an Englishman, fearing that England would be relegated to a dependency of Spain. The fear of dependency was due in large part to the inexperience of having a queen regnant, as Mary was truly England's first (Lady Jane having only reigned n...
During her reign, Mary's weak health led her to suffer two false pregnancies. After such a delusion in 1558, Mary decreed in her will that her husband Philip should be the regent during the minority of her child. No child, however, was born, and Mary died at the age of 42, most probably of ovarian cancer at St. James's Palace on 17 November, 1558. She was succeeded by her half-sister, who became Elizabeth I. Mary was interred in Westminster Abbey on 14 December, in a tomb she would eventually share with her half-sister. The Latin inscription on a marble plaque on their tomb (affixed there during the reign of James I) translates to "Partners both in Throne and grave, here rest we two sisters, Elizabeth and Mary, in the hope of one resurrection".
Although Mary enjoyed tremendous popular support and sympathy for her mistreatment during the earliest parts of her reign, she lost almost all of it after marrying Philip. The marriage treaty clearly specified that England was not to be drawn into any Spanish wars, but this guarantee proved meaningless. Philip spent most of his time governing his Spanish and European territories, and little of it with his wife in England. After Mary's death, Philip became a suitor for Elizabeth's hand, but Elizabeth refused him. The persecution of Protestants earned Mary the appellation "Bloody Mary." ref>Tarrago, Rafael E. (Rafael Emilio) 1951- Bloody Bess: The Persecution of Catholics in Elizabethan England, Online. During Mary's five-year reign, 283 individuals were burnt at the stake, twice as many as had suffered the same fate during the previous century-and-a-half of English history, and at a greater rate than under the contemporary Spanish Inquisition. Several notable clerics were exec...
She has appeared several times in films and televison series portraying the Tudor period. Ann Tyrrell made a cameo appearance as Mary in the movie Young Bess (1953). Nicola Pagett played her in the 1969 film Anne of the Thousand Days; Pagett's brief appearance was in a fictitious scene depicting Mary at Catherine of Aragon's deathbed. (Historically, Mary was not present at the time.) In 1971, the BBC broadcast the six-part television series The Six Wives of Henry VIII. In the first part, Catherine of Aragon, the young Princess Mary was portrayed by Verina Greenlaw. She reappeared, played by Alison Frazer, in the third part, Jane Seymour, and in the sixth, Catherine Parr. In the blockbuster sequel, Elizabeth R, the middle-aged Mary was played by Daphne Slater. The 1985 movie Lady Jane had Jane Lapotaire in the role. In 1998, she was portrayed by Kathy Burke in the lavish costume drama Elizabeth. In 2003, Lara Belmont played her in the British television drama Henry VIII and in 2005 J...
Like Henry VIII and Edward VI, Mary used the style "Majesty", as well as "Highness" and "Grace". "Majesty", which Henry VIII first used on a consistent basis, did not become exclusive until the reign of Elizabeth I's successor, James I. When Mary ascended the throne, she was proclaimed under the same official style as Henry VIII and Edward VI: "Mary, by the Grace of God, Queen of England, France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, and of the Church of England and also of Ireland in Earth Supreme Head". The "supremacy phrase" at the end of the style was repugnant to Mary's Roman Catholic faith; from 1554 onwards, she omitted the phrase without statutory authority, which was not retroactively granted by Parliament until 1555. Under Mary's marriage treaty with Philip II of Spain, the couple were jointly styled King and Queen. The official joint style reflected not only Mary's but also Philip's dominions and claims; it was "Philip and Mary, by the grace of God, King and Queen of England...Pilgrimage of GraceList of British monarchsMary Tudor, Duchess of Suffolk"Mary I". (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica,11th ed. London: Cambridge University Press."Mary Tudor" (1910). The Catholic Encyclopedia(Volume IX). New York: Robert Appleton Company.Williamson, D. (1998). The Kings and Queens of EnglandNew York: National Portrait Gallery.
1. Erickson, Carolly. Bloody Mary: The Life of Mary Tudor. (June 1993) ISBN 0-688-11641-8 2. Hugo, Victor. Mary Tudor: A Drama. ISBN 1-58963-478-0 3. Loades, David M. Mary Tudor: A Life. (March 1992) ISBN 0-631-18449-X 4. Loades, David M. The Reign of Mary Tudor: Politics, Government & Religion in England, 1553-58. (May 1991) ISBN 0-582-05759-0 5. McHarque, Georgess. Queen in Waiting: A Life of "Bloody Mary" Tudor. (June 2004) ISBN 0-595-31254-3 6. Prescott, H. F. M. Mary Tudor: The Spanish T...
1. Baker, Kage. In the Garden of Iden. (December 2005) ISBN 0-7653-1457-6(listed as science fiction, as it involves time travel) 2. Churchill, Rosemary. Daughter of Henry VIII. (May 1978) ISBN 0-523-40325-9 3. Dukthas, Ann. In the Time of the Poisoned Queen. (February 1998) ISBN 0-312-18030-6 4. Feather, Jane. Kissed by Shadows. (February 2003) ISBN 0-553-58308-5 5. Gregory, Philippa. The Queen's Fool 6. Lewis, Hilda. I Am Mary Tudor ISBN 0-446-78017-0, Mary the Queen ISBN 0-09-116030-8, and...
Oct 25, 2018 · She was the first-ever Queen of England to rule in her own right, but to her critics, Mary I of England has long been known only as “Bloody Mary.” This unfortunate nickname was thanks to her...
- Una Mcilvenna
Mary, the daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon was born at Greenwich Palace on 18th February 1516. The couple had married soon after Henry succeeded to the throne in 1509. After losing her first daughter in childbirth Catherine's first son died when he was only a few weeks old.
Aug 10, 2020 · Mary Tudor was the first queen regnant of England, reigning from 1553 until her death in 1558. She is best known for her religious persecutions of Protestants and the executions of over 300...
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