A mass shooting is an incident involving multiple victims of gun violence.There is no widely accepted definition of the term mass shooting.The United States' FBI follows the Investigative Assistance for Violent Crimes Act of 2012 definition for active shooter incidents and mass killings (defined by the law as three or more people) in public places.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mass_shooting
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A mass shooting is an incident involving multiple victims of gun violence.There is no widely accepted definition of the term mass shooting.The United States' FBI follows the Investigative Assistance for Violent Crimes Act of 2012 definition for active shooter incidents and mass killings (defined by the law as three or more people) in public places.
Mass shooting definition, a single incident involving the shooting with one or more firearms of a number of people, but more than two and typically a large number, especially when the victims are random: There's news of a mass shooting at the stadium, with two fatalities and 25 injured.
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In the United States, there are several different, but common, definitions of mass shootings. The Congressional Research Service defines mass shootings, as multiple, firearm, homicide incidents, involving 4 or more victims at one or more locations close to one another. The FBI definition is essentially the same.
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In the 1980s, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) defined mass murderer as someone who “kills four or more people in a single incident (not including himself), typically in a single location” (Krouse and Richardson, 2015). However, the government has never defined mass shooting as a separate category, and there is not yet a universally accepted definition of the term. Thus, media outlets, academic researchers, and law enforcement agencies frequently use different definitions when discus...
In 2014, the FBI released a study showing that “active shooting incidents” had increased at an average annual rate of 16 percent between 2000 and 2013 (Blair and Schweit, 2014). In contrast to the varied definitions for mass shootings, there is an agreed-upon definition among government agencies for active shooter: “an individual actively engaged in killing or attempting to kill people in a confined and populated area; in most cases, active shooters use firearm(s) and there is no pattern or m...
While different choices about how to define a mass shooting and the period over which to calculate mass shooting trends have resulted in disagreement about whether the frequency of mass shootings has risen, there is clear evidence that the media’s use of the term mass shooting has increased significantly over recent decades (Roeder, 2016). Unfortunately, the ambiguity in how mass shootings are defined and counted may result in increased media coverage influencing public perception without bet...
- Project Background
- What The Stanford MSA Is
- What The Stanford MSA Is Not
- Data Collection Methodology
- Definition of Mass Shooting
- Why Limit The Type of Incidents Added to The Stanford MSA?
- Differences Between The Stanford MSA and Other Mass Shooting Data Projects
- Known Issues
- A Note to Researchers and Journalists Using The MSA
- How to Cite The MSA
- Status of The Database
The Stanford Mass Shootings of America (MSA) data project began in 2012, in reaction to the mass shooting in Sandy Hook, CT. In our initial attempts to map this phenomena it was determined that no comprehensive collection of these incidents existed online. The Stanford Geospatial Center set out to create, as best we could, a single point repository for as many mass shooting events as could be collected via online media. The result was the Stanford MSA.
The Stanford MSA is a data aggregation effort. It is a curated set of spatial and temporal data about mass shootings in America, taken from online media sources. It is an attempt to facilitate research on gun violence in the US by making raw data more accessible.
The Stanford MSA is not a comprehensive, longitudinal research project. The data collected in the MSA are not investigated past the assessment for inclusion in the database. The MSA is not an attempt to answer specific questions about gun violence or gun laws.The Stanford Geospatial Center does not provide analysis or commentary on the contents of this database or any derivatives produced with it.
The information collected for the Stanford MSA is limited to online resources. An initial intensive investigation was completed looking back over existing online reports to fill in the historic record going back to 1966. Contemporary records come in as new events occur and are cross referenced against a number of online reporting sources. In general a minimum of three corroborating sources are required to add the full record into the MSA (as many as 6 or 7 sources may have been consulted in m...
The definition of mass shooting used for the Stanford database is 3 or more shooting victims (not necessarily fatalities), not including the shooter. The shooting must not be identifiably gang, drug, or organized crime related.
The goal of the Stanford MSA is to track the particular phenomena of mass shootings in the U.S. and not gun violence as a whole. While all gun violence is tragic, it is the seemingly spontaneous shooting incidents that are the most confounding when looking for answers about motivation, after the fact.
The key difference between the Stanford MSA and other similar projects is the scope of definition and the focus on mass shooting incidents versus mass murder. Instead of limiting our data collection to incidents in which 4 or more fatalities occurred (the previous FBI definition for Mass Murder), we instead collect incidents of 3 or more shooting victims (not necessarily fatalities). All mass shooting definitions are arbitrary in that there is no natural way to quantify such an event. In sett...
1. Data for the Stanford MSA are collected and maintained with the help of student assistants, interns, or temporary staff. The database may be left untended for short periods between staff hires during which events may go unrecorded and remain unremediated when work on the MSA resumes. 2. Locations in the MSA are generally given as City/State. When using some online mapping services to geocode locations by City/State some locations may be misplaced due to the repetition of common city names...
It is the user's responsibility to perform their own rigorous data quality assessment before using the MSA in their work. Please read the data dictionary completely when looking for incident breakdown information. Please refer to the Known Issues and Methodology sections above for information on other issues that may affect trends in the data. Graphing the raw data for commentary without adjusting for the various known issues and methodology (see above sections) may not provide insightful inf...
The Stanford MSA is released under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 international license. Please cite the MSA as “Stanford Mass Shootings in America, courtesy of the Stanford Geospatial Center and Stanford Libraries”.
Due to the significant resource requirements for maintaining this dataset, the Stanford Mass Shootings in America database has been permanently suspended. The project has been archived and will remain publicly available as a GitHub repository.
All records, data dictionary, and methodology information are avaualble for public use at the MSA GitHub Repository.
Oct 04, 2017 · Pelosi’s claim and the mass shooting definition it rests on ignores strict criteria developed in a July 2015 Congressional Research Service report. Its defines a mass shooting as "a multiple...
While there is not a specific definition of a mass shooting, an accepted one says that an incident in which at least four people are shot (injured or killed) is considered a “mass shooting.” The...
Meanwhile in 2013, Congress defined mass killing as “ [three] or more killings in a single incident,” as part of a bill giving the Department of Justice the ability to support local authorities during an investigation.