In 1947 Paul H. Appleby defined public administration as "public leadership of public affairs directly responsible for executive action". In a democracy, it has to do with such leadership and executive action in terms that respect and contribute to the dignity, the worth, and the potentials of the citizen.
Master of Public Affairs (MPA), at Université Laval; Master of Public Policy (MPP), Max Bell School of Public Policy, at McGill University; Department of Political Science at Université de Montréal; Master of Public Administration (MPA), at École nationale d'administration publique, Université du Québec
Dr. Allison Arwady, MD, MPH, is the Commissioner of the Chicago Department of Public Health (CDPH). Dr. Arwady started at CDPH in 2015 and served as Chief Medical Officer before being confirmed by the City Council as Commissioner in January, 2020.