Matilda of Brunswick-Lüneburg (1276–1318), a German noblewoman Matilda of Carinthia (died 1160 or 1161), daughter of Engelbert, Duke of Carinthia Matilda of England, Duchess of Saxony (1156–1189), daughter of Henry II
Frederick III "the restless" of Brunswick-Göttingen-Calenberg (born: 1424; died: 5 March 1495 in Hann.Münden), was a son of Duke William the Victorious of Brunswick-Lüneburg and Cecilia of Brandenburg.
- Early Life
- Act of Settlement
- Quarrel with The King
- Early Reign
- Family Problems
- War and Rebellion
- Later Life
- Titles, Styles, Honours and Arms
HSH Duke Georg August of Hanover was born at Herrenhausen Palace, Hanover. He was the son of Georg Ludwig, then the Hereditary Prince of Brunswick-Lüneburg, and his wife, Sophia of Celle; the latter's alleged adultery led to them being divorced in 1694. He married Margravine Caroline of Brandenburg-Ansbach in 1705.
Under the Act, the Hereditary Prince became a naturalised English subject in that same year. Anne, who had succeeded to the English Throne in 1702, admitted him to the Order of the Garter in 1706. She created him Duke of Cambridge, Earl of Milford Haven, Viscount Northallerton and Baron Tewkesbury later the same year. When Anne died on 1 August 1714, George Louis acceded as George I, and the Duke, automatically became Duke of Cornwall, Duke of Rothesay and Earl of Carrick. His father created him Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester on 27 September 1714.
The Prince of Wales had an extremely poor relationship with his father. When the Princess of Wales gave birth to Prince George William in 1717, a family quarrel ensued; at the baptism, the Prince of Wales insisted on having the Duke of Newcastle (whom the King detested) as a godfather, whilst the King chose his brother, the Duke of York and Albany. When he publicly vituperated his father, the Prince of Wales was temporarily put under arrest. Afterwards, the King banished his son from St. James's Palace, the King's residence, and excluded him from all public ceremonies.
George II succeeded to the throne at the time of his father's death on 11 June 1727, but a battle of wills continued with his son and heir-apparent, Prince Frederick. The King may have planned to exile his son to the British colonies, but, in any event, did not actually do so. George was crowned at Westminster Abbey on 4 October. The Hanoverian composer Handel was commissioned to write four new anthems for the coronation; one of which, Zadok the Priest, has been sung at every coronation since. It was widely believed both that George would dismiss Walpole, who had distressed him by joining his father's government, and that he would be replaced by Sir Spencer Compton; George requested Compton, rather than Walpole, to write his first speech for him. Sir Spencer, however, requested Walpole for aid in the task, leading Queen Caroline, an ardent supporter of Sir Robert, to claim that Compton was incompetent. George did not behave obstinately; instead, he agreed with his wife and retained...
George's relationship with the Prince of Wales worsened during the 1730s. When the Prince of Wales married, an open quarrel broke out; the King banished him and his family from the royal court in 1737. After losing his son, George also lost his wife, who died on 20 November 1737. Reputedly, when she asked her husband to remarry, he replied, "Non, j'aurai des maitresses!" (French for "No, I will have mistresses!"). George had already had an illegitimate son, Johann Ludwig, Graf von Wallmoden-Gimborn. The most famous of his mistresses was Henrietta Howard, Countess of Suffolk, who was one of Caroline's ladies-of-the-bedchamber.
Against Walpole's advice, George once again entered into war, the War of Jenkins' Ear, with Spain in 1739. The entire continent of Europe was plunged into war upon the death of the Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI in 1740. At dispute was the right of his daughter, Maria Theresa, to succeed to his Austrian dominions. George II's war with Spain quickly became part of the War of the Austrian Succession. Sir Robert Walpole was powerless to prevent a major European conflict. He also faced the opposition of several politicians, led by John, Baron Carteret, later Earl Granville. Accused of rigging an election, Walpole retired, in 1742, after over twenty years in office. He was replaced by Spencer Compton, 1st Earl of Wilmington, George's original choice for the premiership, who had previously failed to gain office due to the manœuvres of Queen Caroline. Lord Wilmington, however, was a figurehead; actual power was held by Lord Carteret. When Lord Wilmington died in 1743, Henry Pelham took his...
For the remainder of his life, George did not take any active interest in politics or war. During his last years, the foundation of the Industrial Revolution was laid as the population rose rapidly. British dominance in India increased with the victories of Robert Clive at the Battle of Arcot and the Battle of Plassey. The Prince of Wales died suddenly in 1751, his son, Prince George immediately succeeded him as Duke of Edinburgh. The new Duke was soon created Prince of Wales in recognition of his status as heir-apparent. However, the Dowager Princess of Wales mistrusted the King, and kept the two apart. In 1752, Great Britain reformed its calendar. It had previously operated under the Julian Calendar, but during 1752 adopted the Gregorian Calendar. The calendar change required omitting eleven days; 2 September was followed by 14 September. Furthermore, 1 January became the official beginning of the New Year, instead of 25 March. The former date had been commonly regarded as the beg...
1. 1683- 1692: His Serene HighnessDuke Georg August of Brunswick-Lüneburg 2. 1692- 1698: His Serene HighnessPrince Georg August of Hanover 3. 1698- 1706: His Serene HighnessThe Hereditary Prince of Hanover 4. 1706- 1714: His Serene HighnessThe Duke of Cambridge 5. 1714: His Royal HighnessThe Duke of Cornwall 6. 1714- 1727: His Royal HighnessThe Prince of Wales 7. 1727- 1760: His MajestyThe King
In Great Britain, George II used the official style "George the Second, by the Grace of God, King of Great Britain, France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, etc." In some cases (especially in treaties), the formula "Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Archtreasurer and Prince-Elector of the Holy Roman Empire" was added before "etc."
George II's arms were: Quarterly, I Gules three lions passant guardant in pale Or (for England) impaling Or a lion rampant within a tressure flory-counter-flory Gules (for Scotland); II Azure three fleurs-de-lys Or (for France); III Azure a harp Or stringed Argent (for Ireland); IV tierced per pale and per chevron (for Hanover), I Gules two lions passant guardant Or (for Brunswick), II Or a semy of hearts Gules a lion rampant Azure (for Lüneburg), III Gules a horse courant Argent (for Westfal...
The Seven Years' War continued after George II's death. It concluded during the early reign of George III, and led to important territorial gains for the British in North America and Asia. Neverthe...
- Caroline of Ansbach
- George III
- 11 June 1727 – 25 October 1760
- George I
"Matilda" (song), made popular by Harry Belafonte; Mathilda, by Mary Shelley; Matilda, the second studio album by Stateless Places. Matilda Centre, a social and community centre in Sheffield, UK; Matilda House, one of the oldest houses in Singapore Animals. Atheris matildae, AKA Matilda's Horned Viper; Matilda (chicken) Other uses
Later the song got a life of its own regardless of the masque. Thomson, who supported the Prince of Wales politically, also dedicated an earlier work dedicated to him: Liberty (1734). A Royal Giltwood Frame of Colossal Scale by Paul Petit made at the command of Frederick, Prince of Wales to contain a portrait of Frederick the Great by Antoine ...
June 14 – Remnants of the Song Chinese court in Fuzhou province conduct the coronation ceremony for the Prince Zhao Shi to become Emperor Duanzong of Song. Alamut Castle is again captured by the Mongols from a Nizari force under a son of Rukn al-Din Khurshah and a descendant of the Khwarezmshahs .
marrying Matilda, eldest daughter of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine. Henry the Lion’s relations with the reigning Emperor, Frederick Barbarossa, were stormy; in 1176 he was deprived of his duchies and in 1180 he was exiled to the English court. The Welfs never regained the duchies of Saxony and Bavaria, though Henry the Lion's son
June 9 – Otto I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg; June 29 – Abel, King of Denmark (b. 1218) August 1 – Giovanni da Pian del Carpine, Italian chronicler of the Mongol Empire; November 27 – Blanche of Castile, queen of Louis VIII of France and regent of France (b. 1188) date unknown
- George I of Great Britain
- George II of Great Britain
- George III of The United Kingdom
- George IV of The United Kingdom
- William IV of The United Kingdom
- Victoria of The United Kingdom
- Prince Ernest Augustus I of Hanover
- George V of Hanover Note Yes, Relation
- Depictions in Fiction
George I (German: Georg) did not become King of Great Britain and Ireland until the age of 54, and had possibly less interest in ruling the country than any other actual monarch before or since. During his early life, he'd served in the wars against Louis XIV of France, for which he was made a prince-electornote Theoretically his father had already been made an elector in 1692, but that promotion was only ratified by the Imperial Diet during the course of the War of Spanish Succession, by which time Ernestus Augustus had long dead. and the hereditary (and purely ceremonial) arch-treasurernote The arms of that office - the golden imperial crown on red - are on the central shield of the dynastic arms seen at the top of this page. of the Holy Roman Empire. George married his first cousin, Sophia Dorothea of Brunswick-Celle, for her huge tracts of land (to wit, the adjoining duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg-Celle) and an accompanying income of 1,000 thaler per year; this marriage was enginee...
Perhaps best known for the Jacobite rebellion of 1745 when Bonnie Prince Charlie marched a Scottish army as far as Derby before turning back and being defeated at Culloden. George was also the last British monarch to lead an army in battle (at Dettingen, in 1743), at the age of 60 no less. Also, Britain reformed its calendar in 1752, omitting eleven days to switch from the Julian to Gregorian calendars, and also changing the start of the new year from 25 March to 1 January. The second of September was followed by the fourteenth, and dates were referred to as Old Style or New Style according to which calendar was being used. Most of the Continent had switched some time ago. The song that became the UK's national anthem, 'God Save The King', was written and first performed during George II's reign – and remains used to this day, as 'God Save The Queen' . As a point of trivia, Georg August was not only the last British Monarch born outside of Englandnote (Of his successors there, so fa...
The grandson of George II (his father Frederick, Prince of Wales having died young, as mentioned above), George III came to the throne aged just 22, and went on to become both the longest-lived and longest-reigning sovereign in British history by this point. The first Hanoverian to have been born in England and raised speaking English, he in fact never visited Hanover in his long life. Unlike his two predecessors, who were mostly interested in their German territories, George's attentions were firmly fixed on Britain; at his coronation speech, he famously proclaimed, "I glory in the name of Briton".note Or "Britain"; nobody's quite sure, but either way the point is the same. He nevertheless also accepted the principle of constitutional monarchy; his occasional fights with Parliament were rarely all that contentious, and although he experimented with trying to control the government from outside the Cabinet he was never fully invested in that and gave it up as a fool's errand after t...
Prinny officially got the job in 1820. Once known as the First Gentleman of Europe (mainly because he dressed well and bathed regularly: his devotion to the dress and hygiene habits of Beau Brummell are responsible for popularising Brummell's understated, clean-cut look and fixed the essential standards of taste for men's fashion—good fabric, a simple, elegant cut, dark colours—to this day), he had largely degenerated into an obese Dirty Old Man (one of his less uncomplimentary nicknames before he became King was the "Prince of Whales") whose main preoccupation was depriving his wife, Caroline of Brunswick, of her rights as queen. He barred her from his lavish coronation and she died just a few weeks later. She is the last British Queen to date to predecease her husband. His daughter and heir, Charlotte, had died in childbirth in 1817, so he spent the next couple of years watching his brothers scramble to marry and produce a viable heir of the next generation. He himself never remar...
"Sailor Billy", as he was known, was actually the third son of George III (the second son Frederick, or the literal Grand Old Duke of York, had died some years previously). As such, he was sent into the Navy where he proved to everyone's surprise a thoroughly competent officer; none other than Horatio Nelson wrote of him, "In his professional line, he is superior to two-thirds, I am sure, of the [Naval] list; and in attention to orders, and respect to his superior officer, I hardly know his equal." In the civilian world William was notorious for his casual manners, including his preference for walking as opposed to being driven in a royal carriage. He shocked society by openly living with his mistress (who was—shock horror!—an actress and—double shock horror!—(Protestant) Irish to boot) and acknowledging her children - one of whom was the maternal ancestor of future Prime Minister David Cameron. He also sparked controversy with his political activities, first forcing his father to r...
William IV outlived both of his legitimate children, so when he died the Crown came to his niece, Victoria. (Hanover itself, meanwhile, passed out of personal union with Great Britain and into the hands of William's younger brother Ernest Augustus, as the throne of Hanover couldn't be inherited by a woman.) Her reign was long and eventful; she became both the longest-lived British sovereign (the third time this had occurred in the last five monarchs) and longest-reigning monarch in British history, only surpassed in either category by the present Queen Elizabeth II. As one of Britain's most famous monarchs, much more information is found here: Queen Victoria, Victorian Britain, and Victorian London for more on this period. Her eldest son, Edward VII, marked the beginning of The House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (from the house name of Prince Albert), known today as The House of Windsor. She continued the grand Hanoverian tradition of bad blood with a parent—not with her father (who die...
The fifth son of George III, he was sent to Hanover in his youth for education, military training, and to get him away from the influence of the heir. By 1793 had received a lifelong facial scar on the front lines of The War of the First Coalition, and was created Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale six years later. Of course his time on the continent helped develop his arch-conservative political views, which alongside scandals up to and including actual interference in the elections for a seat in the House of Commons made him increasingly unpopular in Britain. He moved to Berlin with his new wife (twice widowed, the second time convenientlyafter meeting Ernest) in 1818, but being happily married upon the death of his only legitimate niece gave him a real chance at the British throne. His return to Britain in the late 1820s (The House of Commons would only increase his allowance if his young son was being reared locally) heralded his return to politics including fierce opposition to...
Born in Berlin and spending most of his formative years in Britain, he was 18 when he arrived in Hanover as the new Crown Prince... and completely blind due to childhood illnesses. His father had some hopes of getting him married off to his first cousin Victoria of Kent with an eye toward reuniting Great Britain and Hanover in the next generation, but that did not work out. Ernst August didoverride all attempts to set his only living child aside from the Hanoverian succession due to his blindness and instructed his son in the art of rulership. It ultimately did not go well. Georg V's 15 year reign was plagued with conflict between the crown and parliament, ending with a dispute over whether to stay out of the 1866 Austro-Prussian war. He won and sided with his Viennese ally... then was forced to flee with his family to Austria and found himself formally deposed when Prussia overran the outmatched and strategically vulnerable North German kingdom. He died in Parisian exile twelve yea...Blackadder The Third takes place during the Regency of George IV, played by Hugh Laurie as an Upper-Class Twit. His butler is Edmund Blackadder, who eventually arranges to Kill and Replace his mast...Any work taking place in The Napoleonic Wars, though those stories tend to focus on the fighting as opposed to the Hanover dynasty.