When the emperor returned to Germany to deal with a rebellion, he left Matilda as regent of his newly acquired Italian lands, where she governed and often presided independently over courts of law. In 1119, she rejoined her husband in Lotharingia, and remained there as regent when Henry left to deal with another rebellion in Saxony.
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In 929, Henry promised Matilda numerous fortresses and towns for her dower inheritance to provide her income after his death. Over the next several years, Matilda converted three of the five towns into religious communities, including Quedlinburg and Nordhausen, later renowned as centers of learning.
King of Germany. (King of – Romans) Rudolf was the son of Albert IV, Count of Habsburg. Rudolf came from 14 generations of nobility and wealth. He had 11 children with Gertrude of Hohenburg: 1c1g Matilda – mother of Louis IV, H. Roman Emperor in 1328-. 2c1g Albert I, King of Germany (1255-1308) called Albrecht.
English princess as the daughter of Henry I. After her first husband, Emperor Henry V, died, she married Geoffrey, Count of Anjou (died 1151), in 1128 and bore the future Henry II. She struggled with her cousin Stephen of Blois for the throne of England and governed briefly in 1141 until defeated later that year. 0
May 29, 2013 - Mathilde von Habsburg (um 1251-1304) -eldest daughter of King Rudolf, mit ihrem Gemahl. Portrait along with her husband Ludwig II of Bavaria Space Heating (+1294) and two coats of arms. Tinted lithograph lithographer. Institute in Vienna after the command of Emperor Maximilian I created original paintings, called "Pedigree of the House of Austria" in the Ambras collection,. 37x33cm
Rudolf I (1 May 1218 – 15 July 1291) was the first king of Germany from the House of Habsburg. The first of the count-kings of Germany, he reigned from 1273 until his death. Rudolf's election marked the end of the Great Interregnum which had begun after the death of the Hohenstaufen Emperor Frederick II in 1250.
Charles VI (October 1, 1685 – October 20, 1740) was Holy Roman Emperor and ruler of the Austrian Habsburg Monarchy from 1711 until his death, succeeding his elder brother, Joseph I. Archduke Charles was the second son of Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I and of his third wife, Princess Eleonor Magdalene of Neuburg, Archduke Charles was born on October 1, 1685.
- Early Reign as Duke of Upper Bavaria
- Election as German King and Conflict with Habsburg
- Coronation as Holy Roman Emperor and Conflict with The Pope
- Imperial Privileges
- Dynastic Policy
- Conflict with Luxemburg
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Louis was born in Munich, the son of Louis II, Duke of Upper Bavaria and Count Palatine of the Rhine, and Matilda, a daughter of King Rudolph I. Though Louis was partly educated in Vienna and became co-regent of his brother Rudolf I in Upper Bavaria in 1301 with the support of his Habsburg mother and her brother, King Albert I, he quarrelled with the Habsburgs from 1307 over possessions in Lower Bavaria. A civil war against his brother Rudolf due to new disputes on the partition of their lands was ended in 1313, when peace was made at Munich. In the same year, on November 9, Louis defeated his Habsburg cousin Frederick the Fair who was further aided by duke Leopold I. Originally, he was a friend of Frederick, with whom he had been raised. However, armed conflict arose when the guardianship over the young Dukes of Lower Bavaria (Henry XIV, Otto IV, and Henry XV) was entrusted to Frederick, even though the late Duke Otto III, the former King of Hungary, had chosen Louis. On 9 November...
Template:Unreferenced sectionThe death of Holy Roman Emperor Henry VII in August 1313 necessitated the election of a successor. Henry's son John, King of Bohemia since 1310, seemed too powerful to most prince-electors, opening the door for other candidates. The most likely choice was Frederick the Fair, the son of Henry's predecessor, Albert I, of the House of Habsburg. In reaction, the pro-Luxemburg party among the prince electorssettled on Louis as its candidate to prevent Frederick's election. On 19 October 1314, Archbishop Henry II Cologne chaired an assembly of four electors assembled at Sachsenhausen, south of Frankfurt. Participants were Louis's brother, Rudolph I of the Palatinate, who objected to the election of his younger brother, Duke Rudolph I of Saxe-Wittenberg, and Henry of Carinthia, whom the Luxemburgs had deposed as King of Bohemia. These four elector chose Frederick as King. The Luxemburg party did not accept this election and the next day a second election was he...
After the reconciliation with the Habsburgs in 1326, Louis marched to Italy and was crowned King of Italy in Milan in 1327. Already in 1323 Louis had sent an army to Italy to protect Milan against the Kingdom of Naples, which was together with France the strongest ally of the papacy. But now the Lord of Milan Galeazzo I Viscontiwas deposed since he was suspected of conspiring with the pope. In January 1328 Louis entered Rome and had himself crowned emperor by the aged senator Sciarra Colonna, called captain of the Roman people. Three months later Louis published a decree declaring "Jacque de Cahors" (Pope John XXII) deposed on grounds of heresy. He then installed a Spiritual Franciscan, Pietro Rainalducci, as Nicholas V, but both left Rome in August 1328. In the meantime Robert, King of Naples had sent both a fleet and an army against Louis and his ally Peter II of Sicily. Louis spent the winter 1328/29 in Pisa and stayed then in Northern Italy until his co-ruler Frederick of Habsbu...
Louis IV was a protector of the Teutonic Knights. In 1337 he allegedly bestowed upon the Teutonic Order a privilege to conquer Lithuania and Russia, although the Order had only petitioned for three small territories.Later he forbade the Order to stand trial before foreign courts in their territorial conflicts with foreign rulers. Louis concentrated his energies also on the economic development of the cities of the empire, so his name can be found in many city chronicles for the privileges he granted. In 1330 the emperor for example permitted the Frankfurt Trade Fair, and in 1340 Lübeck, as the most powerful member of the future Hanseatic League, received the coinage prerogative for golden gulden.
In 1323 Louis gave Brandenburg as a fiefdom to his eldest son Louis V after the Brandenburg branch of the House of Ascania had died out. With the Treaty of Pavia in 1329 the emperor reconciled the sons of his late brother Rudolph and returned the Palatinate to his nephews Rudolf and Rupert. After the death of Henry of Bohemia the duchy of Carinthia was released as an imperial fief on 2 May 1335 in Linz to his Habsburg cousins Albert II, Duke of Austria and Otto, Duke of Austria, while Tyrolwas first placed into Luxemburg hands. With the death of duke John I in 1340 Louis inherited Lower Bavaria and then reunited the duchy of Bavaria. John's mother, a member of the Luxemburg dynasty, had to return to Bohemia. In 1342 Louis also acquired Tyrol for the Wittelsbach by voiding the first marriage of Margarete Maultasch with John Henry of Bohemiaand marrying her to his own son Louis V, thus alienating the House of Luxemburg even more. In 1345 the emperor further antagonized the lay princes...
The acquisition of these territories and his restless foreign policy had earned Louis many enemies among the German princes. In the summer of 1346 the Luxemburg Charles IV was elected rival king, with the support of Pope Clement VI. Louis himself obtained much support from the Imperial Free Cities and the knights and successfully resisted Charles, who was widely regarded as a papal puppet ("rex clericorum" as William of Ockham called him). Also the Habsburg dukes stayed loyal to Louis. In the Battle of Crécy Charles' father John of Luxemburgwas killed; Charles himself also took part in the battle but escaped. But then Louis' sudden death avoided a longer civil war. Louis died in October 1347 from a stroke suffered during a bear-hunt in Puch near Fürstenfeldbruck. He is buried in the Frauenkirche in Munich. The sons of Louis supported Günther von Schwarzburg as new rival king to Charles but finally joined the Luxemburg party after Günther's early death in 1349 and divided the Wittels...
In 1308 Louis IV married his first wife, Beatrix of Świdnica. Their children were: 1. Mathilde (aft. 21 June 1313 – 2 July 1346, Meißen), married at Nuremberg 1 July 1329 Frederick II, Margrave of Meissen(d. 1349) 2. Daughter (end September 1314 – died shortly after). 3. Louis V the Brandenburger (July 1316 – 17/18 September 1361), duke of Upper Bavaria, margrave of Brandenburg, count of Tyrol 4. Anna (c. July 1317 – 29 January 1319, Kastl) 5. Agnes (c. 1318 – died shortly after). 6. Stephen II (autumn 1319 – 19 May 1375), duke of Lower Bavaria In 1324 he married his second wife, Margaret II, Countess of Hainaut and Holland.Their children were: 1. Margaret (1325 – 1374), married: 1.1. in 1351 in Ofen Stephen, Duke of Slavonia (d. 1354), son of the King Charles I of Hungary; 1.2. 1357/58 Gerlach von Hohenlohe. 2. Anna (c. 1326 – 3 June 1361, Fontenelles) married John I of Lower Bavaria(d. 1340). 3. Louis VI the Roman(7 May 1328 – 17 May 1365), duke of Upper Bavaria, elector of Brande...
Cox, Eugene L. (1967). The Green Count of Savoy. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. LCCN 67-11030.
Charter given by Louis to the Hospital of the Holy Spirit in Nuremberg taken from the collections of the LBA Marburg
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